# Mathematical logic

Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical properties of formal systems of logic such as their expressive or deductive power. However, it can also include uses of logic to characterize correct mathematical reasoning or to establish foundations of mathematics. Since its inception, mathematical logic has both contributed to and been motivated by the study of foundations of mathematics. This study began in the late 19th century with the development of axiomatic frameworks for geometry, arithmetic, and analysis. In the early 20th century it was shaped by David Hilbert's program to prove the consistency of foundational theories. Results of Kurt Gödel, Gerhard Gentzen, and others provided partial resolution to the program, and clarified the issues involved in proving consistency. Work in set theory showed that almost all ordinary mathematics can be formalized in terms of sets, although there are some theorems that cannot be proven in common axiom systems for set theory. Contemporary work in the foundations of mathematics often focuses on establishing which parts of mathematics can be formalized in particular formal systems (as in reverse mathematics) rather than trying to find theories in which all of mathematics can be developed. (Wikipedia).

Logic: The Structure of Reason

As a tool for characterizing rational thought, logic cuts across many philosophical disciplines and lies at the core of mathematics and computer science. Drawing on Aristotle’s Organon, Russell’s Principia Mathematica, and other central works, this program tracks the evolution of logic, be

From playlist Logic & Philosophy of Mathematics

Logic - Types of Statements

An introduction to the general types of logic statements

From playlist Geometry

Introduction to Predicate Logic

This video introduces predicate logic. mathispower4u.com

From playlist Symbolic Logic and Proofs (Discrete Math)

Inverse Statements - Logic

This video teaches students how to write the inverse of a conditional statement. In particular, this video goes into detail about how to negate the hypothesis and conclusion of a conditional statement. In addition, the concepts of truth value, negating statements and logical equivalence ar

From playlist Geometry

Maths for Programmers: Logic (What Is Logic?)

We're busy people who learn to code, then practice by building projects for nonprofits. Learn Full-stack JavaScript, build a portfolio, and get great references with our open source community. Join our community at https://freecodecamp.com Follow us on twitter: https://twitter.com/freecod

From playlist Maths for Programmers

Converse Statements - Logic

This video focuses on how to write the converse of a conditional statement. In particular, this video shows how to flip the hypothesis and conclusion of a conditional statement. The concepts of truth value and logical equivalence are explored as well. Your feedback and requests are encour

From playlist Geometry

Teach Astronomy - Logic

http://www.teachastronomy.com/ Logic is a fundamental tool of the scientific method. In logic we can combine statements that are made in words or in mathematical symbols to produce concrete and predictable results. Logic is one of the ways that science moves forward. The first ideas of

From playlist 01. Fundamentals of Science and Astronomy

Evaluate an expression with one variable ex2, 2x + 3 - 2; x=5

👉 Learn how to evaluate mathematics expressions. A mathematics expression is a finite combination of numbers and symbols formed following a set of operations or rules. To evaluate a mathematics expression means to obtain the solution to the expression given the value(s) of the variable(s)

From playlist Simplify Expressions Using Order of Operations

Inference: A Logical-Philosophical Perspective with Alexander Paseau

In this talk, Professor Alexander Paseau, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford, will describe some of his work on inference within mathematics and more generally. Inferences can be usefully divided into deductive or non-deductive. Formal logic studies deductive inference, the obviou

From playlist Franke Program in Science and the Humanities

Inference: A Logical-Philosophical Perspective - Moderated Conversation w/ A.C. Paseau and Gila Sher

Inference:  A Logical-Philosophical Perspective. Moderated Conversation with Gila Sher, Department of Philosophy, University of California, San Diego on the talk by Alexander Paseau, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford. The Franke Program in Science and the Humanities Understandi

From playlist Franke Program in Science and the Humanities

Evaluating an expression with two variables ex 5, (bc)^2; b = 4; c = 8

👉 Learn how to evaluate mathematics expressions. A mathematics expression is a finite combination of numbers and symbols formed following a set of operations or rules. To evaluate a mathematics expression means to obtain the solution to the expression given the value(s) of the variable(s)

From playlist Simplify Expressions Using Order of Operations

Philosophy of Mathematics & Frege (Dummett 1994)

Michael Dummett gives a talk on Frege and the philosophy of mathematics. For a good introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, check out: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UhX1ouUjDHE Another good introduction to the philosophy of mathematics: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XyXWnGFKTkg

From playlist Logic & Philosophy of Mathematics

Start Learning Logic - Part 1 - Logical Statements, Negation and Conjunction [dark version]

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From playlist Start Learning Mathematics [dark version]

Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems: An Informal Introduction to Formal Logic #SoME2

My entry into SoME2. Also, my first ever video. I hope you enjoy. The Book List: Logic by Paul Tomassi A very good first textbook. Quite slow at first and its treatment of first-order logic leaves a little to be desired in my opinion, but very good on context, i.e. why formal logic is im

From playlist Summer of Math Exposition 2 videos

Crisis in the Foundation of Mathematics | Infinite Series

Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/donateinfi What if the foundation that all of mathematics is built upon isn't as firm as we thought it was? Note: The natural numbers sometimes include zero and sometimes don't -

From playlist An Infinite Playlist

What Are Numbers? Philosophy of Mathematics (Elucidations)

What is mathematics about and how do we acquire mathematical knowledge? Mathematics seems to be about numbers, but what exactly are numbers? Are numbers and other mathematical objects something discovered or invented? Daniel Sutherland discusses some of these issues in the philosophy of ma

From playlist Logic & Philosophy of Mathematics

Evaluating an expression with one variable ex 3, (2x - 4)/4x; x = -3

👉 Learn how to evaluate mathematics expressions. A mathematics expression is a finite combination of numbers and symbols formed following a set of operations or rules. To evaluate a mathematics expression means to obtain the solution to the expression given the value(s) of the variable(s)

From playlist Simplify Expressions Using Order of Operations

Intro to the Philosophy of Mathematics (Ray Monk)

A good introduction to the philosophy of mathematics by Ray Monk. He considers the issue of the nature of mathematical truth - what mathematics is actually about - and discusses the views of Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Frege and Russell. What is mathematics about? Is mathematics something disc

From playlist Logic & Philosophy of Mathematics