Category: Polytopes

Cyclohedron
In geometry, the cyclohedron is a -dimensional polytope where can be any non-negative integer. It was first introduced as a combinatorial object by Raoul Bott and Clifford Taubes and, for this reason,
Configuration (polytope)
In geometry, H. S. M. Coxeter called a regular polytope a special kind of configuration. Other configurations in geometry are something different. These polytope configurations may be more accurately
Circumcenter of mass
In geometry, the circumcenter of mass is a center associated with a polygon which shares many of the properties of the center of mass. More generally, the circumcenter of mass may be defined for simpl
Integer points in convex polyhedra
The study of integer points in convex polyhedra is motivated by questions such as "how many nonnegative integer-valued solutions does a system of linear equations with nonnegative coefficients have" o
Polytope families
There are several families of symmetric polytopes with irreducible symmetry which have a member in more than one dimensionality. These are tabulated here with Petrie polygon projection graphs and Coxe
Wythoff construction
In geometry, a Wythoff construction, named after mathematician Willem Abraham Wythoff, is a method for constructing a uniform polyhedron or plane tiling. It is often referred to as Wythoff's kaleidosc
Simplicial polytope
In geometry, a simplicial polytope is a polytope whose facets are all simplices. For example, a simplicial polyhedron in three dimensions contains only triangular faces and corresponds via Steinitz's
Schlegel diagram
In geometry, a Schlegel diagram is a projection of a polytope from into through a point just outside one of its facets. The resulting entity is a of the facet in that, together with the original facet
Uniform k 21 polytope
In geometry, a uniform k21 polytope is a polytope in k + 4 dimensions constructed from the En Coxeter group, and having only regular polytope facets. The family was named by their Coxeter symbol k21 b
Facet (geometry)
In geometry, a facet is a feature of a polyhedron, polytope, or related geometric structure, generally of dimension one less than the structure itself. More specifically: * In three-dimensional geome
Lists of uniform tilings on the sphere, plane, and hyperbolic plane
In geometry, many uniform tilings on sphere, euclidean plane, and hyperbolic plane can be made by Wythoff construction within a fundamental triangle, (p q r), defined by internal angles as π/p, π/q, a
Complex polytope
In geometry, a complex polytope is a generalization of a polytope in real space to an analogous structure in a complex Hilbert space, where each real dimension is accompanied by an imaginary one. A co
Isogonal figure
In geometry, a polytope (e.g. a polygon or polyhedron) or a tiling is isogonal or vertex-transitive if all its vertices are equivalent under the symmetries of the figure. This implies that each vertex
Permutoassociahedron
In mathematics, the permutoassociahedron is an -dimensional polytope whose vertices correspond to the bracketings of the permutations of terms and whose edges connect two bracketings that can be obtai
Simplex
In geometry, a simplex (plural: simplexes or simplices) is a generalization of the notion of a triangle or tetrahedron to arbitrary dimensions. The simplex is so-named because it represents the simple
Hessian polyhedron
In geometry, the Hessian polyhedron is a regular complex polyhedron 3{3}3{3}3, , in . It has 27 vertices, 72 3{} edges, and 27 3{3}3 faces. It is self-dual. Coxeter named it after Ludwig Otto Hesse fo
Chiral polytope
In mathematics, there are two competing definitions for a chiral polytope. One is that it is a polytope that is chiral (or "enantiomorphic"), meaning that it does not have mirror symmetry. By this def
Stellation
In geometry, stellation is the process of extending a polygon in two dimensions, polyhedron in three dimensions, or, in general, a polytope in n dimensions to form a new figure. Starting with an origi
Expansion (geometry)
In geometry, expansion is a polytope operation where facets are separated and moved radially apart, and new facets are formed at separated elements (vertices, edges, etc.). Equivalently this operation
Region (model checking)
In model checking, a field of computer science, a region is a convex polytope in for some dimension , and more precisely a zone, satisfying some minimality property. The regions partition . The set of
Dissection problem
In geometry, a dissection problem is the problem of partitioning a geometric figure (such as a polytope or ball) into smaller pieces that may be rearranged into a new figure of equal content. In this
Demihypercube
In geometry, demihypercubes (also called n-demicubes, n-hemicubes, and half measure polytopes) are a class of n-polytopes constructed from alternation of an n-hypercube, labeled as hγn for being half
List of regular polytopes and compounds
This article lists the regular polytopes and regular polytope compounds in Euclidean, spherical and hyperbolic spaces. The Schläfli symbol describes every regular tessellation of an n-sphere, Euclidea
Polar sine
In geometry, the polar sine generalizes the sine function of angle to the vertex angle of a polytope. It is denoted by psin.
Order polynomial
The order polynomial is a polynomial studied in mathematics, in particular in algebraic graph theory and algebraic combinatorics. The order polynomial counts the number of order-preserving maps from a
Ehrhart polynomial
In mathematics, an integral polytope has an associated Ehrhart polynomial that encodes the relationship between the volume of a polytope and the number of integer points the polytope contains. The the
Hypersimplex
In polyhedral combinatorics, the hypersimplex is a convex polytope that generalizes the simplex. It is determined by two integers and , and is defined as the convex hull of the -dimensional vectors wh
Semiregular polytope
In geometry, by Thorold Gosset's definition a semiregular polytope is usually taken to be a polytope that is vertex-transitive and has all its facets being regular polytopes. E.L. Elte compiled a long
Cauchy's theorem (geometry)
Cauchy's theorem is a theorem in geometry, named after Augustin Cauchy. It states that convex polytopes in three dimensions with congruent corresponding faces must be congruent to each other. That is,
Distributive polytope
In the geometry of convex polytopes, a distributive polytope is a convex polytope for which coordinatewise minima and maxima of pairs of points remain within the polytope. For example, this property i
Stacked polytope
In polyhedral combinatorics (a branch of mathematics), a stacked polytope is a polytope formed from a simplex by repeatedly gluing another simplex onto one of its facets.
Associahedron
In mathematics, an associahedron Kn is an (n – 2)-dimensional convex polytope in which each vertex corresponds to a way of correctly inserting opening and closing parentheses in a string of n letters,
Vertex arrangement
In geometry, a vertex arrangement is a set of points in space described by their relative positions. They can be described by their use in polytopes. For example, a square vertex arrangement is unders
Faceting
In geometry, faceting (also spelled facetting) is the process of removing parts of a polygon, polyhedron or polytope, without creating any new vertices. New edges of a faceted polyhedron may be create
Schläfli symbol
In geometry, the Schläfli symbol is a notation of the form that defines regular polytopes and tessellations. The Schläfli symbol is named after the 19th-century Swiss mathematician Ludwig Schläfli, wh
In computational geometry, the gift wrapping algorithm is an algorithm for computing the convex hull of a given set of points.
List of polygons, polyhedra and polytopes
A polytope is a geometric object with flat sides, which exists in any general number of dimensions. The following list of polygons, polyhedra and polytopes gives the names of various classes of polyto
Witting polytope
In 4-dimensional complex geometry, the Witting polytope is a regular complex polytope, named as: 3{3}3{3}3{3}3, and Coxeter diagram . It has 240 vertices, 2160 3{} edges, 2160 3{3}3 faces, and 240 3{3
Hanner polytope
In geometry, a Hanner polytope is a convex polytope constructed recursively by Cartesian product and polar dual operations. Hanner polytopes are named after Olof Hanner, who introduced them in 1956.
Honeycomb (geometry)
In geometry, a honeycomb is a space filling or close packing of polyhedral or higher-dimensional cells, so that there are no gaps. It is an example of the more general mathematical tiling or tessellat
Cyclotruncated simplectic honeycomb
In geometry, the cyclotruncated simplectic honeycomb (or cyclotruncated n-simplex honeycomb) is a dimensional infinite series of honeycombs, based on the symmetry of the affine Coxeter group. It is gi
Convex polytope
A convex polytope is a special case of a polytope, having the additional property that it is also a convex set contained in the -dimensional Euclidean space . Most texts use the term "polytope" for a
Permutohedron
In mathematics, the permutohedron of order n is an (n − 1)-dimensional polytope embedded in an n-dimensional space. Its vertex coordinates (labels) are the permutations of the first n natural numbers.
Racemic acid
Racemic acid is an old name for an optically inactive or racemic form of tartaric acid. It is an equal mixture of two mirror-image isomers (enantiomers), optically active in opposing directions. It oc
Apeirotope
In geometry, an apeirotope or infinite polytope is a generalized polytope which has infinitely many facets.
Minkowski problem for polytopes
In the geometry of convex polytopes, the Minkowski problem for polytopes concerns the specification of the shape of a polytope by the directions and measures of its facets. The theorem that every poly
Omnitruncated simplectic honeycomb
In geometry an omnitruncated simplectic honeycomb or omnitruncated n-simplex honeycomb is an n-dimensional uniform tessellation, based on the symmetry of the affine Coxeter group. Each is composed of
Möbius–Kantor polygon
In geometry, the Möbius–Kantor polygon is a regular complex polygon 3{3}3, , in . 3{3}3 has 8 vertices, and 8 edges. It is self-dual. Every vertex is shared by 3 triangular edges. Coxeter named it a M
Order polytope
In mathematics, the order polytope of a finite partially ordered set is a convex polytope defined from the set. The points of the order polytope are the monotonic functions from the given set to the u
Dual polyhedron
In geometry, every polyhedron is associated with a second dual structure, where the vertices of one correspond to the faces of the other, and the edges between pairs of vertices of one correspond to t
Quarter hypercubic honeycomb
In geometry, the quarter hypercubic honeycomb (or quarter n-cubic honeycomb) is a dimensional infinite series of honeycombs, based on the hypercube honeycomb. It is given a Schläfli symbol q{4,3...3,4
Ludwig Schläfli
Ludwig Schläfli (15 January 1814 – 20 March 1895) was a Swiss mathematician, specialising in geometry and complex analysis (at the time called function theory) who was one of the key figures in develo
Matching polytope
In graph theory, the matching polytope of a given graph is a geometric object representing the possible matchings in the graph. It is a convex polytope each of whose corners corresponds to a matching.
Uniform 2 k1 polytope
In geometry, 2k1 polytope is a uniform polytope in n dimensions (n = k+4) constructed from the En Coxeter group. The family was named by their Coxeter symbol as 2k1 by its bifurcating Coxeter-Dynkin d
Simplectic honeycomb
In geometry, the simplectic honeycomb (or n-simplex honeycomb) is a dimensional infinite series of honeycombs, based on the affine Coxeter group symmetry. It is represented by a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram
Vertex figure
In geometry, a vertex figure, broadly speaking, is the figure exposed when a corner of a polyhedron or polytope is sliced off.
Blind polytope
No description available.
Gosset–Elte figures
In geometry, the Gosset–Elte figures, named by Coxeter after Thorold Gosset and E. L. Elte, are a group of uniform polytopes which are not regular, generated by a Wythoff construction with mirrors all
Vertex (geometry)
In geometry, a vertex (in plural form: vertices or vertexes) is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet. As a consequence of this definition, the point where two lines meet to form an a
Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter
Harold Scott MacDonald "Donald" Coxeter, CC, FRS, FRSC (9 February 1907 – 31 March 2003) was a British and later also Canadian geometer. He is regarded as one of the greatest geometers of the 20th cen
Kleetope
In geometry and polyhedral combinatorics, the Kleetope of a polyhedron or higher-dimensional convex polytope P is another polyhedron or polytope PK formed by replacing each facet of P with a shallow p
Pentagonal polytope
In geometry, a pentagonal polytope is a regular polytope in n dimensions constructed from the Hn Coxeter group. The family was named by H. S. M. Coxeter, because the two-dimensional pentagonal polytop
Hyperpyramid
A hyperpyramid is a generalisation of the normal pyramid to n dimensions. In the case of the pyramid one connects all vertices of the base, a polygon in a plane, to a point outside the plane, which is
Integral polytope
In geometry and polyhedral combinatorics, an integral polytope is a convex polytope whose vertices all have integer Cartesian coordinates. That is, it is a polytope that equals the convex hull of its
Difference bound matrix
In model checking, a field of computer science, a difference bound matrix (DBM) is a data structure used to represent some convex polytopes called zones. This structure can be used to efficiently impl
Uniform 1 k2 polytope
In geometry, 1k2 polytope is a uniform polytope in n-dimensions (n = k+4) constructed from the En Coxeter group. The family was named by their Coxeter symbol 1k2 by its bifurcating Coxeter-Dynkin diag
Hypercubic honeycomb
In geometry, a hypercubic honeycomb is a family of regular honeycombs (tessellations) in n-dimensional spaces with the Schläfli symbols {4,3...3,4} and containing the symmetry of Coxeter group Rn (or
Petrie polygon
In geometry, a Petrie polygon for a regular polytope of n dimensions is a skew polygon in which every n – 1 consecutive sides (but no n) belongs to one of the facets. The Petrie polygon of a regular p
Matroid polytope
In mathematics, a matroid polytope, also called a matroid basis polytope (or basis matroid polytope) to distinguish it from other polytopes derived from a matroid, is a polytope constructed via the ba
Convex Polytopes
Convex Polytopes is a graduate-level mathematics textbook about convex polytopes, higher-dimensional generalizations of three-dimensional convex polyhedra. It was written by Branko Grünbaum, with cont
Hyperrectangle
In geometry, an orthotope (also called a hyperrectangle or a box) is the generalization of a rectangle to higher dimensions.A necessary and sufficient condition is that it is congruent to the Cartesia
Antiprism
In geometry, an n-gonal antiprism or n-antiprism is a polyhedron composed of two parallel direct copies (not mirror images) of an n-sided polygon, connected by an alternating band of 2n triangles. The
Polytope
In elementary geometry, a polytope is a geometric object with flat sides (faces). Polytopes are the generalization of three-dimensional polyhedra to any number of dimensions. Polytopes may exist in an
Hilbert cube
In mathematics, the Hilbert cube, named after David Hilbert, is a topological space that provides an instructive example of some ideas in topology. Furthermore, many interesting topological spaces can
Schläfli orthoscheme
In geometry, a Schläfli orthoscheme is a type of simplex. The orthoscheme is the generalization of the right triangle to simplex figures of any number of dimensions. Orthoschemes are defined by a sequ
Normal polytope
In mathematics, specifically in combinatorial commutative algebra, a convex lattice polytope P is called normal if it has the following property: given any positive integer n, every lattice point of t
Runcination
In geometry, runcination is an operation that cuts a regular polytope (or honeycomb) simultaneously along the faces, edges, and vertices, creating new facets in place of the original face, edge, and v
Computing the Continuous Discretely
Computing the Continuous Discretely: Integer-Point Enumeration in Polyhedra is an undergraduate-level textbook in geometry, on the interplay between the volume of convex polytopes and the number of la
Blaschke sum
In convex geometry and the geometry of convex polytopes, the Blaschke sum of two polytopes is a polytope that has a facet parallel to each facet of the two given polytopes, with the same measure. When
Regular complex polygon
In geometry, a regular complex polygon is a generalization of a regular polygon in real space to an analogous structure in a complex Hilbert space, where each real dimension is accompanied by an imagi
Abstract polytope
In mathematics, an abstract polytope is an algebraic partially ordered set which captures the dyadic property of a traditional polytope without specifying purely geometric properties such as points an
Regular polytope
In mathematics, a regular polytope is a polytope whose symmetry group acts transitively on its flags, thus giving it the highest degree of symmetry. All its elements or j-faces (for all 0 ≤ j ≤ n, whe
Truncation (geometry)
In geometry, a truncation is an operation in any dimension that cuts polytope vertices, creating a new facet in place of each vertex. The term originates from Kepler's names for the Archimedean solids
Wythoff symbol
In geometry, the Wythoff symbol is a notation representing a Wythoff construction of a uniform polyhedron or plane tiling within a Schwarz triangle. It was first used by Coxeter, Longuet-Higgins and M
Eutactic star
In Euclidean geometry, a eutactic star is a geometrical figure in a Euclidean space. A star is a figure consisting of any number of opposing pairs of vectors (or arms) issuing from a central origin. A
Rectification (geometry)
In Euclidean geometry, rectification, also known as critical truncation or complete-truncation, is the process of truncating a polytope by marking the midpoints of all its edges, and cutting off its v
Cross-polytope
In geometry, a cross-polytope, hyperoctahedron, orthoplex, or cocube is a regular, convex polytope that exists in n-dimensional Euclidean space. A 2-dimensional cross-polytope is a square, a 3-dimensi
Bitruncation
In geometry, a bitruncation is an operation on regular polytopes. It represents a truncation beyond rectification. The original edges are lost completely and the original faces remain as smaller copie
Gram–Euler theorem
In geometry, the Gram–Euler theorem, Gram-Sommerville, Brianchon-Gram or Gram relation (named after Jørgen Pedersen Gram, Leonhard Euler, Duncan Sommerville and Charles Julien Brianchon) is a generali
Regular Polytopes (book)
Regular Polytopes is a geometry book on regular polytopes written by Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter. It was originally published by Methuen in 1947 and by Pitman Publishing in 1948, with a second edit
Density (polytope)
In geometry, the density of a star polyhedron is a generalization of the concept of winding number from two dimensions to higher dimensions,representing the number of windings of the polyhedron around
Edge (geometry)
In geometry, an edge is a particular type of line segment joining two vertices in a polygon, polyhedron, or higher-dimensional polytope. In a polygon, an edge is a line segment on the boundary, and is
Proprism
In geometry of 4 dimensions or higher, a proprism is a polytope resulting from the Cartesian product of two or more polytopes, each of two dimensions or higher. The term was coined by John Horton Conw
Uniform polytope
In geometry, a uniform polytope of dimension three or higher is a vertex-transitive polytope bounded by uniform facets. The uniform polytopes in two dimensions are the regular polygons (the definition
Alternated hypercubic honeycomb
In geometry, the alternated hypercube honeycomb (or demicubic honeycomb) is a dimensional infinite series of honeycombs, based on the hypercube honeycomb with an alternation operation. It is given a S