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Goodman-Nguyen-Van Fraassen algebra

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Formal power series

In mathematics, a formal series is an infinite sum that is considered independently from any notion of convergence, and can be manipulated with the usual algebraic operations on series (addition, subt

Cover (algebra)

In abstract algebra, a cover is one instance of some mathematical structure mapping onto another instance, such as a group (trivially) covering a subgroup. This should not be confused with the concept

Indeterminate (variable)

In mathematics, particularly in formal algebra, an indeterminate is a symbol that is treated as a variable, but does not stand for anything else except itself. It may be used as a placeholder in objec

Multilinear form

In abstract algebra and multilinear algebra, a multilinear form on a vector space over a field is a map that is separately K-linear in each of its k arguments. More generally, one can define multiline

Setoid

In mathematics, a setoid (X, ~) is a set (or type) X equipped with an equivalence relation ~. A setoid may also be called E-set, Bishop set, or extensional set. Setoids are studied especially in proof

Canonical basis

In mathematics, a canonical basis is a basis of an algebraic structure that is canonical in a sense that depends on the precise context:
* In a coordinate space, and more generally in a free module,

Cycle graph (algebra)

In group theory, a subfield of abstract algebra, a group cycle graph illustrates the various cycles of a group and is particularly useful in visualizing the structure of small finite groups. A cycle i

Simple (abstract algebra)

In mathematics, the term simple is used to describe an algebraic structure which in some sense cannot be divided by a smaller structure of the same type. Put another way, an algebraic structure is sim

Parallel (operator)

The parallel operator (also known as reduced sum, parallel sum or parallel addition) (pronounced "parallel", following the parallel lines notation from geometry) is a mathematical function which is us

Arity

Arity (/ˈærɪti/) is the number of arguments or operands taken by a function, operation or relation in logic, mathematics, and computer science. In mathematics, arity may also be named rank, but this w

General linear group

In mathematics, the general linear group of degree n is the set of n×n invertible matrices, together with the operation of ordinary matrix multiplication. This forms a group, because the product of tw

Closure with a twist

Closure with a twist is a property of subsets of an algebraic structure. A subset of an algebraic structure is said to exhibit closure with a twist if for every two elements there exists an automorphi

Direct limit

In mathematics, a direct limit is a way to construct a (typically large) object from many (typically smaller) objects that are put together in a specific way. These objects may be groups, rings, vecto

Split exact sequence

In mathematics, a split exact sequence is a short exact sequence in which the middle term is built out of the two outer terms in the simplest possible way.

Orthogonality (mathematics)

In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the geometric notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms. Two elements u and v of a vector space with bilinear form B are

Algebraic element

In mathematics, if L is a field extension of K, then an element a of L is called an algebraic element over K, or just algebraic over K, if there exists some non-zero polynomial g(x) with coefficients

Total algebra

In abstract algebra, the total algebra of a monoid is a generalization of the monoid ring that allows for infinite sums of elements of a ring. Suppose that S is a monoid with the property that, for al

Scalar multiplication

In mathematics, scalar multiplication is one of the basic operations defining a vector space in linear algebra (or more generally, a module in abstract algebra). In common geometrical contexts, scalar

Dixmier conjecture

In algebra the Dixmier conjecture, asked by Jacques Dixmier in 1968, is the conjecture that any endomorphism of a Weyl algebra is an automorphism. in 2005, and independently and Kontsevich in 2007, sh

Irreducible polynomial

In mathematics, an irreducible polynomial is, roughly speaking, a polynomial that cannot be factored into the product of two non-constant polynomials. The property of irreducibility depends on the nat

Light's associativity test

In mathematics, Light's associativity test is a procedure invented by F. W. Light for testing whether a binary operation defined in a finite set by a Cayley multiplication table is associative. The na

Faltings' annihilator theorem

In abstract algebra (specifically commutative ring theory), Faltings' annihilator theorem states: given a finitely generated module M over a Noetherian commutative ring A and ideals I, J, the followin

Bifundamental representation

In mathematics and theoretical physics, a bifundamental representation is a representation obtained as a tensor product of two fundamental or antifundamental representations. For example, the MN-dimen

Left and right (algebra)

In algebra, the terms left and right denote the order of a binary operation (usually, but not always, called "multiplication") in non-commutative algebraic structures.A binary operation ∗ is usually w

Absorption law

In algebra, the absorption law or absorption identity is an identity linking a pair of binary operations. Two binary operations, ¤ and ⁂, are said to be connected by the absorption law if: a ¤ (a ⁂ b)

Proofs involving the addition of natural numbers

This article contains mathematical proofs for some properties of addition of the natural numbers: the additive identity, commutativity, and associativity. These proofs are used in the article Addition

Unitary element

In mathematics, an element x of a *-algebra is unitary if it satisfies In functional analysis, a linear operator A from a Hilbert space into itself is called unitary if it is invertible and its invers

Row and column spaces

In linear algebra, the column space (also called the range or image) of a matrix A is the span (set of all possible linear combinations) of its column vectors. The column space of a matrix is the imag

Closure (mathematics)

In mathematics, a subset of a given set is closed under an operation of the larger set if performing that operation on members of the subset always produces a member of that subset. For example, the n

Information algebra

The term "information algebra" refers to mathematical techniques of information processing. Classical information theory goes back to Claude Shannon. It is a theory of information transmission, lookin

External (mathematics)

The term external is useful for describing certain algebraic structures. The term comes from the concept of an external binary operation which is a binary operation that draws from some external set.

Free object

In mathematics, the idea of a free object is one of the basic concepts of abstract algebra. Informally, a free object over a set A can be thought of as being a "generic" algebraic structure over A: th

Radical polynomial

In mathematics, in the realm of abstract algebra, a radial polynomial is a multivariate polynomial over a field that can be expressed as a polynomial in the sum of squares of the variables. That is, i

Generator (mathematics)

In mathematics and physics, the term generator or generating set may refer to any of a number of related concepts. The underlying concept in each case is that of a smaller set of objects, together wit

Polarization of an algebraic form

In mathematics, in particular in algebra, polarization is a technique for expressing a homogeneous polynomial in a simpler fashion by adjoining more variables. Specifically, given a homogeneous polyno

Bendixson's inequality

In mathematics, Bendixson's inequality is a quantitative result in the field of matrices derived by Ivar Bendixson in 1902. The inequality puts limits on the imaginary parts of Characteristic roots (e

Dimension

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus, a line has a dimen

Ordered exponential

The ordered exponential, also called the path-ordered exponential, is a mathematical operation defined in non-commutative algebras, equivalent to the exponential of the integral in the commutative alg

A∞-operad

In the theory of operads in algebra and algebraic topology, an A∞-operad is a parameter space for a multiplication map that is homotopy coherently associative. (An operad that describes a multiplicati

Idealizer

In abstract algebra, the idealizer of a subsemigroup T of a semigroup S is the largest subsemigroup of S in which T is an ideal. Such an idealizer is given by In ring theory, if A is an additive subgr

Word problem (mathematics)

In computational mathematics, a word problem is the problem of deciding whether two given expressions are equivalent with respect to a set of rewriting identities. A prototypical example is the word p

Hasse–Schmidt derivation

In mathematics, a Hasse–Schmidt derivation is an extension of the notion of a derivation. The concept was introduced by .

Coimage

In algebra, the coimage of a homomorphism is the quotient of the domain by the kernel. The coimage is canonically isomorphic to the image by the first isomorphism theorem, when that theorem applies. M

Linear map

In mathematics, and more specifically in linear algebra, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation, vector space homomorphism, or in some contexts linear function) is a mapping

Expression (mathematics)

In mathematics, an expression or mathematical expression is a finite combination of symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context. Mathematical symbols can designate number

Normal element

In mathematics, an element x of a *-algebra is normal if it satisfies This definition stems from the definition of a normal linear operator in functional analysis, where a linear operator A from a Hil

Hyperstructure

Hyperstructures are algebraic structures equipped with at least one multi-valued operation, called a hyperoperation. The largest classes of the hyperstructures are the ones called – structures. A hype

Cokernel

The cokernel of a linear mapping of vector spaces f : X → Y is the quotient space Y / im(f) of the codomain of f by the image of f. The dimension of the cokernel is called the corank of f. Cokernels a

Zero-product property

In algebra, the zero-product property states that the product of two nonzero elements is nonzero. In other words, This property is also known as the rule of zero product, the null factor law, the mult

Center (algebra)

The term center or centre is used in various contexts in abstract algebra to denote the set of all those elements that commute with all other elements.
* The center of a group G consists of all those

Embedding

In mathematics, an embedding (or imbedding) is one instance of some mathematical structure contained within another instance, such as a group that is a subgroup. When some object is said to be embedde

Algebraic independence

In abstract algebra, a subset of a field is algebraically independent over a subfield if the elements of do not satisfy any non-trivial polynomial equation with coefficients in . In particular, a one

Direct sum

The direct sum is an operation between structures in abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics. It is defined differently, but analogously, for different kinds of structures. To see how the direct sum

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector (/ˈaɪɡənˌvɛktər/) or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a nonzero vector that changes at most by a scalar factor when that linear transformation is a

Locally finite operator

In mathematics, a linear operator is called locally finite if the space is the union of a family of finite-dimensional -invariant subspaces. In other words, there exists a family of linear subspaces o

Hidden algebra

Hidden algebra provides a formal semantics for use in the field of software engineering, especially for concurrent distributed object systems. It supports correctness proofs. Hidden algebra was studie

Garside element

In mathematics, a Garside element is an element of an algebraic structure such as a monoid that has several desirable properties. Formally, if M is a monoid, then an element Δ of M is said to be a Gar

Operad algebra

In algebra, an operad algebra is an "algebra" over an operad. It is a generalization of an associative algebra over a commutative ring R, with an operad replacing R.

Higher-order operad

In algebra, a higher-order operad is a higher-dimensional generalization of an operad.

Commutator

In mathematics, the commutator gives an indication of the extent to which a certain binary operation fails to be commutative. There are different definitions used in group theory and ring theory.

Principle of distributivity

The principle of distributivity states that the algebraic distributive law is valid, where both logical conjunction and logical disjunction are distributive over each other so that for any proposition

Inverse limit

In mathematics, the inverse limit (also called the projective limit) is a construction that allows one to "glue together" several related objects, the precise gluing process being specified by morphis

Kernel (set theory)

In set theory, the kernel of a function (or equivalence kernel) may be taken to be either
* the equivalence relation on the function's domain that roughly expresses the idea of "equivalent as far as

Yoneda product

In algebra, the Yoneda product (named after Nobuo Yoneda) is the pairing between Ext groups of modules: induced by Specifically, for an element , thought of as an extension , and similarly , we form t

Automorphism

In mathematics, an automorphism is an isomorphism from a mathematical object to itself. It is, in some sense, a symmetry of the object, and a way of mapping the object to itself while preserving all o

Cauchy sequence

In mathematics, a Cauchy sequence (French pronunciation: [koʃi]; English: /ˈkoʊʃiː/ KOH-shee), named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other a

Absolute value (algebra)

In algebra, an absolute value (also called a valuation, magnitude, or norm, although "norm" usually refers to a specific kind of absolute value on a field) is a function which measures the "size" of e

List of problems in loop theory and quasigroup theory

In mathematics, especially abstract algebra, loop theory and quasigroup theory are active research areas with many open problems. As in other areas of mathematics, such problems are often made public

Isomorphism class

In mathematics, an isomorphism class is a collection of mathematical objects isomorphic to each other. Isomorphism classes are often defined as the exact identity of the elements of the set is conside

Near sets

In mathematics, near sets are either spatially close or descriptively close. Spatially close sets have nonempty intersection. In other words, spatially close sets are not disjoint sets, since they alw

Linear independence

In the theory of vector spaces, a set of vectors is said to be linearly dependent if there is a nontrivial linear combination of the vectors that equals the zero vector. If no such linear combination

Additive identity

In mathematics, the additive identity of a set that is equipped with the operation of addition is an element which, when added to any element x in the set, yields x. One of the most familiar additive

Rayleigh's quotient in vibrations analysis

The Rayleigh's quotient represents a quick method to estimate the natural frequency of a multi-degree-of-freedom vibration system, in which the mass and the stiffness matrices are known. The eigenvalu

Additive inverse

In mathematics, the additive inverse of a number a is the number that, when added to a, yields zero. This number is also known as the opposite (number), sign change, and negation. For a real number, i

Cyclic vector

An operator A on an (infinite dimensional) Banach space or Hilbert space H has a cyclic vector f if the vectors f, Af, A2f,... span H. Equivalently, f is a cyclic vector for A in case the set of all v

Subquotient

In the mathematical fields of category theory and abstract algebra, a subquotient is a quotient object of a subobject. Subquotients are particularly important in abelian categories, and in group theor

Sequential dynamical system

Sequential dynamical systems (SDSs) are a class of graph dynamical systems. They are discrete dynamical systems which generalize many aspects of for example classical cellular automata, and they provi

Formal derivative

In mathematics, the formal derivative is an operation on elements of a polynomial ring or a ring of formal power series that mimics the form of the derivative from calculus. Though they appear similar

Cylinder (algebra)

No description available.

Transpose

In linear algebra, the transpose of a matrix is an operator which flips a matrix over its diagonal; that is, it switches the row and column indices of the matrix A by producing another matrix, often d

Harmonic polynomial

In mathematics, in abstract algebra, a multivariate polynomial p over a field such that the Laplacian of p is zero is termed a harmonic polynomial. The harmonic polynomials form a vector subspace of t

Inverse element

In mathematics, the concept of an inverse element generalises the concepts of opposite (−x) and reciprocal (1/x) of numbers. Given an operation denoted here ∗, and an identity element denoted e, if x

Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector or simply a vector (sometimes called a geometric vector or spatial vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and directi

Centralizer and normalizer

In mathematics, especially group theory, the centralizer (also called commutant) of a subset S in a group G is the set of elements of G such that each member commutes with each element of S, or equiva

Operad

In mathematics, an operad is a structure that consists of abstract operations, each one having a fixed finite number of inputs (arguments) and one output, as well as a specification of how to compose

Icosian calculus

The icosian calculus is a non-commutative algebraic structure discovered by the Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1856.In modern terms, he gave a group presentation of the icosahedral rota

Algebraic structure

In mathematics, an algebraic structure consists of a nonempty set A (called the underlying set, carrier set or domain), a collection of operations on A (typically binary operations such as addition an

Linear span

In mathematics, the linear span (also called the linear hull or just span) of a set S of vectors (from a vector space), denoted span(S), is defined as the set of all linear combinations of the vectors

List of abstract algebra topics

Abstract algebra is the subject area of mathematics that studies algebraic structures, such as groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, and algebras. The phrase abstract algebra was coined at th

Lulu smoothing

In signal processing, Lulu smoothing is a nonlinear mathematical technique for removing impulsive noise from a data sequence such as a time series. It is a nonlinear equivalent to taking a moving aver

Zero divisor

In abstract algebra, an element a of a ring R is called a left zero divisor if there exists a nonzero x in R such that ax = 0, or equivalently if the map from R to R that sends x to ax is not injectiv

Poincaré space

In algebraic topology, a Poincaré space is an n-dimensional topological space with a distinguished element µ of its nth homology group such that taking the cap product with an element of the kth cohom

Perfect complex

In algebra, a perfect complex of modules over a commutative ring A is an object in the derived category of A-modules that is quasi-isomorphic to a bounded complex of finite projective A-modules. A per

Skew-Hermitian matrix

In linear algebra, a square matrix with complex entries is said to be skew-Hermitian or anti-Hermitian if its conjugate transpose is the negative of the original matrix. That is, the matrix is skew-He

Homomorphic secret sharing

In cryptography, homomorphic secret sharing is a type of secret sharing algorithm in which the secret is encrypted via homomorphic encryption. A homomorphism is a transformation from one algebraic str

Absolutely convex set

In mathematics, a subset C of a real or complex vector space is said to be absolutely convex or disked if it is convex and balanced (some people use the term "circled" instead of "balanced"), in which

Direct product

In mathematics, one can often define a direct product of objects already known, giving a new one. This generalizes the Cartesian product of the underlying sets, together with a suitably defined struct

Maximal common divisor

In abstract algebra, particularly ring theory, maximal common divisors are an abstraction of the number theory concept of greatest common divisor (GCD). This definition is slightly more general than G

Polarization identity

In linear algebra, a branch of mathematics, the polarization identity is any one of a family of formulas that express the inner product of two vectors in terms of the norm of a normed vector space. If

Minimal ideal

In the branch of abstract algebra known as ring theory, a minimal right ideal of a ring R is a nonzero right ideal which contains no other nonzero right ideal. Likewise, a minimal left ideal is a nonz

Emmy Noether bibliography

Emmy Noether was a German mathematician. This article lists the publications upon which her reputation is built (in part).

Infinite expression

In mathematics, an infinite expression is an expression in which some operators take an infinite number of arguments, or in which the nesting of the operators continues to an infinite depth. A generic

Field (mathematics)

In mathematics, a field is a set on which addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and behave as the corresponding operations on rational and real numbers do. A field is thus a

E∞-operad

In the theory of operads in algebra and algebraic topology, an E∞-operad is a parameter space for a multiplication map that is associative and commutative "up to all higher homotopies". (An operad tha

Graded-commutative ring

In algebra, a graded-commutative ring (also called a skew-commutative ring) is a graded ring that is commutative in the graded sense; that is, homogeneous elements x, y satisfy where |x | and |y | den

Self-adjoint

In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, an element x of a *-algebra is self-adjoint if . A self-adjoint element is also Hermitian, though the reverse doesn't necessarily hold. A col

Bilinear form

In mathematics, a bilinear form is a bilinear map V × V → K on a vector space V (the elements of which are called vectors) over a field K (the elements of which are called scalars). In other words, a

Generating set of a module

In mathematics, a generating set Γ of a module M over a ring R is a subset of M such that the smallest submodule of M containing Γ is M itself (the smallest submodule containing a subset is the inters

Rational series

In mathematics and computer science, a rational series is a generalisation of the concept of formal power series over a ring to the case when the basic algebraic structure is no longer a ring but a se

Abstract algebra

In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices

Predual

In mathematics, the predual of an object D is an object P whose dual space is D. For example, the predual of the space of bounded operators is the space of trace class operators, and the predual of th

Normal basis

In mathematics, specifically the algebraic theory of fields, a normal basis is a special kind of basis for Galois extensions of finite degree, characterised as forming a single orbit for the Galois gr

Conditional event algebra

A standard, Boolean algebra of events is a set of events related to one another by the familiar operations and, or, and not. A conditional event algebra (CEA) contains not just ordinary events but als

Multiplicative inverse

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1. The multiplicative inverse o

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