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Polytope

In elementary geometry, a polytope is a geometric object with flat sides (faces). Polytopes are the generalization of three-dimensional polyhedra to any number of dimensions. Polytopes may exist in an

Real closed field

In mathematics, a real closed field is a field F that has the same first-order properties as the field of real numbers. Some examples are the field of real numbers, the field of real algebraic numbers

Tarski–Seidenberg theorem

In mathematics, the Tarski–Seidenberg theorem states that a set in (n + 1)-dimensional space defined by polynomial equations and inequalities can be projected down onto n-dimensional space, and the re

Harnack's curve theorem

In real algebraic geometry, Harnack's curve theorem, named after Axel Harnack, gives the possible numbers of connected components that an algebraic curve can have, in terms of the degree of the curve.

Subanalytic set

In mathematics, particularly in the subfield of , a subanalytic set is a set of points (for example in Euclidean space) defined in a way broader than for semianalytic sets (roughly speaking, those sat

Semidefinite programming

Semidefinite programming (SDP) is a subfield of convex optimization concerned with the optimization of a linear objective function (a user-specified function that the user wants to minimize or maximiz

Archimedean property

In abstract algebra and analysis, the Archimedean property, named after the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse, is a property held by some algebraic structures, such as ordered or norm

Ordered ring

In abstract algebra, an ordered ring is a (usually commutative) ring R with a total order ≤ such that for all a, b, and c in R:
* if a ≤ b then a + c ≤ b + c.
* if 0 ≤ a and 0 ≤ b then 0 ≤ ab.

Existential theory of the reals

In mathematical logic, computational complexity theory, and computer science, the existential theory of the reals is the set of all true sentences of the form where the variables are interpreted as ha

Decidability of first-order theories of the real numbers

In mathematical logic, a first-order language of the real numbers is the set of all well-formed sentences of first-order logic that involve universal and existential quantifiers and logical combinatio

Real closed ring

In mathematics, a real closed ring (RCR) is a commutative ring A that is a subring of a product of real closed fields, which is closed under continuous semi-algebraic functions defined over the intege

SOS-convexity

A multivariate polynomial is SOS-convex (or sum of squares convex) if its Hessian matrix H can be factored as H(x) = ST(x)S(x) where S is a matrix (possibly rectangular) which entries are polynomials

Semialgebraic space

In mathematics, especially in real algebraic geometry, a semialgebraic space is a space which is locally isomorphic to a semialgebraic set.

Hilbert's sixteenth problem

Hilbert's 16th problem was posed by David Hilbert at the Paris conference of the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1900, as part of his list of 23 problems in mathematics. The original probl

O-minimal theory

In mathematical logic, and more specifically in model theory, an infinite structure (M,<,...) which is totally ordered by < is called an o-minimal structure if and only if every definable subset X ⊂ M

Sum-of-squares optimization

A sum-of-squares optimization program is an optimization problem with a linear cost function and a particular type of constraint on the decision variables. These constraints are of the form that when

Real plane curve

In mathematics, a real plane curve is usually a real algebraic curve defined in the real projective plane.

Nash functions

In real algebraic geometry, a Nash function on an open semialgebraic subset U ⊂ Rn is an analytic function f: U → R satisfying a nontrivial polynomial equation P(x,f(x)) = 0 for all x in U (A semialge

Cylindrical algebraic decomposition

In mathematics, cylindrical algebraic decomposition (CAD) is a notion, and an algorithm to compute it, that are fundamental for computer algebra and real algebraic geometry. Given a set S of polynomia

Krivine–Stengle Positivstellensatz

In real algebraic geometry, Krivine–Stengle Positivstellensatz (German for "positive-locus-theorem") characterizes polynomials that are positive on a semialgebraic set, which is defined by systems of

Łojasiewicz inequality

In real algebraic geometry, the Łojasiewicz inequality, named after Stanisław Łojasiewicz, gives an upper bound for the distance of a point to the nearest zero of a given real analytic function. Speci

Positive polynomial

In mathematics, a positive polynomial on a particular set is a polynomial whose values are positive on that set. Let p be a polynomial in n variables with real coefficients and let S be a subset of th

Gram–Euler theorem

In geometry, the Gram–Euler theorem, Gram-Sommerville, Brianchon-Gram or Gram relation (named after Jørgen Pedersen Gram, Leonhard Euler, Duncan Sommerville and Charles Julien Brianchon) is a generali

Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a continuous one-dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, continuous means that values can have arb

Moment problem

In mathematics, a moment problem arises as the result of trying to invert the mapping that takes a measure μ to the sequences of moments More generally, one may consider for an arbitrary sequence of f

Bitangents of a quartic

In the theory of algebraic plane curves, a general quartic plane curve has 28 bitangent lines, lines that are tangent to the curve in two places. These lines exist in the complex projective plane, but

Semialgebraic set

In mathematics, a semialgebraic set is a subset S of Rn for some real closed field R (for example R could be the field of real numbers) defined by a finite sequence of polynomial equations (of the for

Pierce–Birkhoff conjecture

In abstract algebra, the Pierce–Birkhoff conjecture asserts that any piecewise-polynomial function can be expressed as a maximum of finite minima of finite collections of polynomials. It was first sta

Budan's theorem

In mathematics, Budan's theorem is a theorem for bounding the number of real roots of a polynomial in an interval, and computing the parity of this number. It was published in 1807 by François Budan d

Ragsdale conjecture

The Ragsdale conjecture is a mathematical conjecture that concerns the possible arrangements of real algebraic curves embedded in the projective plane. It was proposed by Virginia Ragsdale in her diss

Gudkov's conjecture

In real algebraic geometry, Gudkov's conjecture, also called Gudkov’s congruence, (named after Dmitry Gudkov) was a conjecture, and is now a theorem, which states that an M-curve of even degree obeys

Hilbert's seventeenth problem

Hilbert's seventeenth problem is one of the 23 Hilbert problems set out in a celebrated list compiled in 1900 by David Hilbert. It concerns the expression of positive definite rational functions as su

Sturm's theorem

In mathematics, the Sturm sequence of a univariate polynomial p is a sequence of polynomials associated with p and its derivative by a variant of Euclid's algorithm for polynomials. Sturm's theorem ex

Quadratic form

In mathematics, a quadratic form is a polynomial with terms all of degree two ("form" is another name for a homogeneous polynomial). For example, is a quadratic form in the variables x and y. The coef

Mnëv's universality theorem

In algebraic geometry, Mnëv's universality theorem is a result which can be used to represent algebraic (or semi algebraic) varieties as realizations of oriented matroids, a notion of combinatorics.

Fourier–Motzkin elimination

Fourier–Motzkin elimination, also known as the FME method, is a mathematical algorithm for eliminating variables from a system of linear inequalities. It can output real solutions. The algorithm is na

Non-Archimedean ordered field

In mathematics, a non-Archimedean ordered field is an ordered field that does not satisfy the Archimedean property. Examples are the Levi-Civita field, the hyperreal numbers, the surreal numbers, the

Real algebraic geometry

In mathematics, real algebraic geometry is the sub-branch of algebraic geometry studying real algebraic sets, i.e. real-number solutions to algebraic equations with real-number coefficients, and mappi

Ordered field

In mathematics, an ordered field is a field together with a total ordering of its elements that is compatible with the field operations. The basic example of an ordered field is the field of real numb

Spectrahedron

In convex geometry, a spectrahedron is a shape that can be represented as a linear matrix inequality. Alternatively, the set of n × n positive semidefinite matrices forms a convex cone in Rn × n, and

Real-root isolation

In mathematics, and, more specifically in numerical analysis and computer algebra, real-root isolation of a polynomial consist of producing disjoint intervals of the real line, which contain each one

Polynomial SOS

In mathematics, a form (i.e. a homogeneous polynomial) h(x) of degree 2m in the real n-dimensional vector x is sum of squares of forms (SOS) if and only if there exist forms of degree m such that Ever

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