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3D rotation group

In mechanics and geometry, the 3D rotation group, often denoted SO(3), is the group of all rotations about the origin of three-dimensional Euclidean space under the operation of composition. By defini

Spherical conic

In mathematics, a spherical conic or sphero-conic is a curve on the sphere, the intersection of the sphere with a concentric elliptic cone. It is the spherical analog of a conic section (ellipse, para

Bang's theorem on tetrahedra

In geometry, Bang's theorem on tetrahedra states that, if a sphere is inscribed within a tetrahedron, and segments are drawn from the points of tangency to each vertex on the same face of the tetrahed

Dandelin spheres

In geometry, the Dandelin spheres are one or two spheres that are tangent both to a plane and to a cone that intersects the plane. The intersection of the cone and the plane is a conic section, and th

Girth (geometry)

In three-dimensional geometry, the girth of a geometric object, in a certain direction, is the perimeter of its parallel projection in that direction. For instance, the girth of a unit cube in a direc

Body of constant brightness

In convex geometry, a body of constant brightness is a three-dimensional convex set all of whose two-dimensional projections have equal area. A sphere is a body of constant brightness, but others exis

3D projection

A 3D projection (or graphical projection) is a design technique used to display a three-dimensional (3D) object on a two-dimensional (2D) surface. These projections rely on visual perspective and aspe

Unit cube

A unit cube, more formally a cube of side 1, is a cube whose sides are 1 unit long. The volume of a 3-dimensional unit cube is 1 cubic unit, and its total surface area is 6 square units.

Solid angle

In geometry, a solid angle (symbol: Ω) is a measure of the amount of the field of view from some particular point that a given object covers. That is, it is a measure of how large the object appears t

Solid sweep

The sweep Sw of a solid S is defined as the solid created when a motion M is applied to a given solid. The solid S should be considered to be a set of points in the Euclidean space R3. Then the solid

Surface of constant width

In geometry, a surface of constant width is a convex form whose width, measured by the distance between two opposite parallel planes touching its boundary, is the same regardless of the direction of t

Three-dimensional space

Three-dimensional space (also: 3D space, 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an elemen

Polycon

In geometry, a polycon is a kind of a developable roller. It is made of identical pieces of a cone whose apex angle equals the angle of an even sided regular polygon. In principle, there are infinitel

Solid modeling

Solid modeling (or solid modelling) is a consistent set of principles for mathematical and computer modeling of three-dimensional shapes (solids). Solid modeling is distinguished from related areas of

Soddy's hexlet

In geometry, Soddy's hexlet is a chain of six spheres (shown in grey in Figure 1), each of which is tangent to both of its neighbors and also to three mutually tangent given spheres. In Figure 1, the

Finite sphere packing

In mathematics, the theory of finite sphere packing concerns the question of how a finite number of equally-sized spheres can be most efficiently packed. The question of packing finitely many spheres

Ungula

In solid geometry, an ungula is a region of a solid of revolution, cut off by a plane oblique to its base. A common instance is the spherical wedge. The term ungula refers to the hoof of a horse, an a

Chasles' theorem (kinematics)

In kinematics, Chasles' theorem, or Mozzi–Chasles' theorem, says that the most general rigid body displacement can be produced by a translation along a line (called its screw axis or Mozzi axis) follo

Solid geometry

In mathematics, solid geometry or stereometry is the traditional name for the geometry of three-dimensional, Euclidean spaces (i.e., 3D geometry). Stereometry deals with the measurements of volumes of

Steinmetz solid

In geometry, a Steinmetz solid is the solid body obtained as the intersection of two or three cylinders of equal radius at right angles. Each of the curves of the intersection of two cylinders is an e

Constructive solid geometry

Constructive solid geometry (CSG; formerly called computational binary solid geometry) is a technique used in solid modeling. Constructive solid geometry allows a modeler to create a complex surface o

Octant (solid geometry)

An octant in solid geometry is one of the eight divisions of a Euclidean three-dimensional coordinate system defined by the signs of the coordinates. It is similar to the two-dimensional quadrant and

Skew lines

In three-dimensional geometry, skew lines are two lines that do not intersect and are not parallel. A simple example of a pair of skew lines is the pair of lines through opposite edges of a regular te

Developable roller

In geometry, a developable roller is a convex solid whose surface consists of a single continuous, developable face. While rolling on a plane, most developable rollers develop their entire surface so

Conical surface

In geometry, a (general) conical surface is the unbounded surface formed by the union of all the straight lines that pass through a fixed point — the apex or vertex — and any point of some fixed space

Conic section

In mathematics, a conic section, quadratic curve or conic is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane. The three types of conic section are the hyperbola, the parabol

Cylinder

A cylinder (from Greek: κύλινδρος, romanized: kulindros, lit. 'roller', 'tumbler') has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes. In elementar

Hilbert's third problem

The third of Hilbert's list of mathematical problems, presented in 1900, was the first to be solved. The problem is related to the following question: given any two polyhedra of equal volume, is it al

Gömböc

The Gömböc (Hungarian: [ˈɡømbøt͡s] GUHM-buhts) is the first known physical example of a class of convex three-dimensional homogeneous bodies, called mono-monostatic, which, when resting on a flat surf

Reuleaux tetrahedron

The Reuleaux tetrahedron is the intersection of four balls of radius s centered at the vertices of a regular tetrahedron with side length s. The spherical surface of the ball centered on each vertex p

Dihedral angle

A dihedral angle is the angle between two intersecting planes or half-planes. In chemistry, it is the clockwise angle between half-planes through two sets of three atoms, having two atoms in common. I

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