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Haversine formula

The haversine formula determines the great-circle distance between two points on a sphere given their longitudes and latitudes. Important in navigation, it is a special case of a more general formula

Distance

Distance is a numerical or occasionally qualitative measurement of how far apart objects or points are. In physics or everyday usage, distance may refer to a physical length or an estimation based on

Euclidean distance matrix

In mathematics, a Euclidean distance matrix is an n×n matrix representing the spacing of a set of n points in Euclidean space.For points in k-dimensional space ℝk, the elements of their Euclidean dist

Distance from a point to a plane

In Euclidean space, the distance from a point to a plane is the distance between a given point and its orthogonal projection on the plane, the perpendicular distance to the nearest point on the plane.

Color difference

In color science, color difference or color distance is the separation between two colors. This metric allows quantified examination of a notion that formerly could only be described with adjectives.

Graph edit distance

In mathematics and computer science, graph edit distance (GED) is a measure of similarity (or dissimilarity) between two graphs.The concept of graph edit distance was first formalized mathematically b

Distance between two parallel lines

The distance between two parallel lines in the plane is the minimum distance between any two points.

Distance from a point to a line

In Euclidean geometry, the 'distance from a point to a line is the shortest distance from a given point to any point on an infinite straight line. It is the perpendicular distance of the point to the

Signed distance function

In mathematics and its applications, the signed distance function (or oriented distance function) is the orthogonal distance of a given point x to the boundary of a set Ω in a metric space, with the s

Canberra distance

The Canberra distance is a numerical measure of the distance between pairs of points in a vector space, introduced in 1966and refined in 1967 by Godfrey N. Lance and William T. Williams. It is a weigh

Taxicab geometry

A taxicab geometry or a Manhattan geometry is a geometry in which the usual distance function or metric of Euclidean geometry is replaced by a new metric in which the distance between two points is th

Chebyshev distance

In mathematics, Chebyshev distance (or Tchebychev distance), maximum metric, or L∞ metric is a metric defined on a vector space where the distance between two vectors is the greatest of their differen

Hausdorff distance

In mathematics, the Hausdorff distance, or Hausdorff metric, also called Pompeiu–Hausdorff distance, measures how far two subsets of a metric space are from each other. It turns the set of non-empty c

Mean signed deviation

In statistics, the mean signed difference (MSD), also known as mean signed deviation and mean signed error, is a sample statistic that summarises how well a set of estimates match the quantities that

Angular diameter distance

In astronomy, angular diameter distance is a distance defined in terms of an object's physical size, , and its angular size, , as viewed from Earth:

Distance of closest approach

The distance of closest approach of two objects is the distance between their centers when they are externally tangent. The objects may be geometric shapes or physical particles with well-defined boun

Mahalanobis distance

The Mahalanobis distance is a measure of the distance between a point P and a distribution D, introduced by P. C. Mahalanobis in 1936. Mahalanobis's definition was prompted by the problem of identifyi

Fréchet distance

In mathematics, the Fréchet distance is a measure of similarity between curves that takes into account the location and ordering of the points along the curves. It is named after Maurice Fréchet.

Great-circle distance

The great-circle distance, orthodromic distance, or spherical distance is the distance along a great circle. It is the shortest distance between two points on the surface of a sphere, measured along t

Mean absolute difference

The mean absolute difference (univariate) is a measure of statistical dispersion equal to the average absolute difference of two independent values drawn from a probability distribution. A related sta

Vincenty's formulae

Vincenty's formulae are two related iterative methods used in geodesy to calculate the distance between two points on the surface of a spheroid, developed by Thaddeus Vincenty (1975a). They are based

Minkowski distance

The Minkowski distance or Minkowski metric is a metric in a normed vector space which can be considered as a generalization of both the Euclidean distance and the Manhattan distance. It is named after

Absolute difference

The absolute difference of two real numbers and is given by , the absolute value of their difference. It describes the distance on the real line between the points corresponding to and . It is a speci

Euclidean distance

In mathematics, the Euclidean distance between two points in Euclidean space is the length of a line segment between the two points.It can be calculated from the Cartesian coordinates of the points us

Kendall tau distance

The Kendall tau rank distance is a metric (distance function) that counts the number of pairwise disagreements between two ranking lists. The larger the distance, the more dissimilar the two lists are

Perpendicular distance

In geometry, the perpendicular distance between two objects is the distance from one to the other, measured along a line that is perpendicular to one or both. The distance from a point to a line is th

Friction of distance

Friction of distance is a core principle of Geography that states that movement incurs some form of cost, in the form of physical effort, energy, time, and/or the expenditure of other resources, and t

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