Category: Arithmetic

Casting out nines
Casting out nines is any of three arithmetical procedures: * Adding the decimal digits of a positive whole number, while optionally ignoring any 9s or digits which sum to a multiple of 9. The result
Ackermann function
In computability theory, the Ackermann function, named after Wilhelm Ackermann, is one of the simplest and earliest-discovered examples of a total computable function that is not primitive recursive.
Arithmetic (from Ancient Greek ἀριθμός (arithmós) 'number', and τική [τέχνη] (tikḗ [tékhnē]) 'art, craft') is an elementary part of mathematics that consists of the study of the properties of the trad
History of arithmetic
The history of arithmetic includes the period from the emergence of counting before the formal definition of numbers and arithmetic operations over them by means of a system of axioms. Arithmetic — th
In mathematics, factorization (or factorisation, see English spelling differences) or factoring consists of writing a number or another mathematical object as a product of several factors, usually sma
Arithmologia, sive De Abditis Numerorum Mysteriis is a 1665 work by the Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher. It was published by Varese, the main printing house for the Jesuit order in Rome in the mid-1
Unitary method
The unitary method is a technique for solving a problem by first finding the value of a single unit, and then finding the necessary value by multiplying the single unit value.
Circuits over sets of natural numbers
Circuits over natural numbers are a mathematical model used in studying computational complexity theory. They are a special case of circuits. The object is a labeled directed acyclic graph the nodes o
Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita
The 1889 treatise Arithmetices principia, nova methodo exposita (The principles of arithmetic, presented by a new method; 1889) by Giuseppe Peano is a seminal document in mathematical logic and set th
Divisor sum identities
The purpose of this page is to catalog new, interesting, and useful identities related to number-theoretic divisor sums, i.e., sums of an arithmetic function over the divisors of a natural number , or
Finite field arithmetic
In mathematics, finite field arithmetic is arithmetic in a finite field (a field containing a finite number of elements) contrary to arithmetic in a field with an infinite number of elements, like the
Non-standard model of arithmetic
In mathematical logic, a non-standard model of arithmetic is a model of (first-order) Peano arithmetic that contains non-standard numbers. The term standard model of arithmetic refers to the standard
Anomalous cancellation
An anomalous cancellation or accidental cancellation is a particular kind of arithmetic procedural error that gives a numerically correct answer. An attempt is made to reduce a fraction by cancelling
Integer circuit
In computational complexity theory, an integer circuit is a circuit model of computation in which inputs to the circuit are sets of integers and each gate of the circuit computes either a set operatio
Additive inverse
In mathematics, the additive inverse of a number a is the number that, when added to a, yields zero. This number is also known as the opposite (number), sign change, and negation. For a real number, i
Rounding means replacing a number with an approximate value that has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation. For example, replacing $23.4476 with $23.45, the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or
Fractional part
The fractional part or decimal part of a non‐negative real number is the excess beyond that number's integer part. If the latter is defined as the largest integer not greater than x, called floor of x
3x + 1 semigroup
In algebra, the 3x + 1 semigroup is a special subsemigroup of the multiplicative semigroup of all positive rational numbers. The elements of a generating set of this semigroup are related to the seque
Cocker's Arithmetick
Cocker's Arithmetick, also known by its full title "Cocker's Arithmetick: Being a Plain and Familiar Method Suitable to the Meanest Capacity for the Full Understanding of That Incomparable Art, As It
Composite number
A composite number is a positive integer that can be formed by multiplying two smaller positive integers. Equivalently, it is a positive integer that has at least one divisor other than 1 and itself.
Dyscalculia (/ˌdɪskælˈkjuːliə/) is a disability resulting in difficulty learning or comprehending arithmetic, such as difficulty in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, performin
Multiple (mathematics)
In mathematics, a multiple is the product of any quantity and an integer. In other words, for the quantities a and b, it can be said that b is a multiple of a if b = na for some integer n, which is ca
Successor function
In mathematics, the successor function or successor operation sends a natural number to the next one. The successor function is denoted by S, so S(n) = n + 1. For example, S(1) = 2 and S(2) = 3. The s
Sudan function
In the theory of computation, the Sudan function is an example of a function that is recursive, but not primitive recursive. This is also true of the better-known Ackermann function. The Sudan functio
In mathematics, specifically in elementary arithmetic and elementary algebra, given an equation between two fractions or rational expressions, one can cross-multiply to simplify the equation or determ
Location arithmetic
Location arithmetic (Latin arithmeticae localis) is the additive (non-positional) binary numeral systems, which John Napier explored as a computation technique in his treatise Rabdology (1617), both s
False precision
False precision (also called overprecision, fake precision, misplaced precision and spurious precision) occurs when numerical data are presented in a manner that implies better precision than is justi
Plant arithmetic
Plant arithmetic is a form of plant cognition whereby plants appear to perform arithmetic operations – a form of number sense in plants.
Arithmetic progression topologies
In general topology and number theory, branches of mathematics, one can define various topologies on the set of integers or the set of positive integers by taking as a base a suitable collection of ar
Prosthaphaeresis (from the Greek προσθαφαίρεσις) was an algorithm used in the late 16th century and early 17th century for approximate multiplication and division using formulas from trigonometry. For
Timeline of numerals and arithmetic
A timeline of numerals and arithmetic
Lunar arithmetic
Lunar arithmetic, formerly called dismal arithmetic, is a version of arithmetic in which the addition and multiplication operations on digits are defined as the max and min operations. Thus, in lunar
Arithmetic rope
The arithmetic rope, or knotted rope, was a widely used in the Middle Ages that could be used to solve many mathematical and geometrical problems. An arithmetic rope generally has at least 13 knots—th
Significant figures
Significant figures (also known as the significant digits, precision or resolution) of a number in positional notation are digits in the number that are reliable and necessary to indicate the quantity
Trachtenberg system
The Trachtenberg system is a system of rapid mental calculation. The system consists of a number of readily memorized operations that allow one to perform arithmetic computations very quickly. It was
Wild number
Originally, wild numbers are the numbers supposed to belong to a fictional sequence of numbers imagined to exist in the mathematical world of the mathematical fiction The Wild Numbers authored by Phil
Outline of arithmetic
Arithmetic is an elementary branch of mathematics that is widely used for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations.
In 1617 a treatise in Latin titled Rabdologiæ and written by John Napier was published in Edinburgh. Printed three years after his treatise on the discovery of logarithms and in the same year as his d
Interval arithmetic
Interval arithmetic (also known as interval mathematics, interval analysis, or interval computation) is a mathematical technique used to put bounds on rounding errors and measurement errors in mathema
Bracket (mathematics)
In mathematics, brackets of various typographical forms, such as parentheses, square brackets [ ], braces { } and angle brackets ⟨ ⟩, are frequently used in mathematical notation. Generally, such brac
Interval contractor
In mathematics, an interval contractor (or contractor for short) associated to a set X is an operator C which associates to a box [x] in Rn another box C([x]) of Rn such that the two following propert