- Mathematics
- >
- Fields of mathematics
- >
- Applied mathematics
- >
- Theoretical computer science

Idempotence

Idempotence (UK: /ˌɪdɛmˈpoʊtəns/, US: /ˈaɪdəm-/) is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science whereby they can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond

Rough set

In computer science, a rough set, first described by Polish computer scientist Zdzisław I. Pawlak, is a formal approximation of a crisp set (i.e., conventional set) in terms of a pair of sets which gi

Property testing

In computer science, a property testing algorithm for a decision problem is an algorithm whose query complexity to its input is much smaller than the instance size of the problem. Typically property t

Monge array

In mathematics applied to computer science, Monge arrays, or Monge matrices, are mathematical objects named for their discoverer, the French mathematician Gaspard Monge. An m-by-n matrix is said to be

Configurable modularity

Configurable modularity is a term coined by Raoul de Campo of IBM Research and later expanded on by Nate Edwards of the same organization, denoting the ability to reuse independent components by chang

Gödel Prize

The Gödel Prize is an annual prize for outstanding papers in the area of theoretical computer science, given jointly by the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science (EATCS) and the Associ

Extractor (mathematics)

An -extractor is a bipartite graph with nodes on the left and nodes on the right such that each node on the left has neighbors (on the right), which has the added property thatfor any subset of the le

Tree automaton

A tree automaton is a type of state machine. Tree automata deal with tree structures, rather than the strings of more conventional state machines. The following article deals with branching tree autom

Algorithmic transparency

Algorithmic transparency is the principle that the factors that influence the decisions made by algorithms should be visible, or transparent, to the people who use, regulate, and are affected by syste

Probabilistic bisimulation

In theoretical computer science, probabilistic bisimulation is an extension of the concept of bisimulation for fully probabilistic transition systems first described by and . A discrete probabilistic

Lambda calculus

Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.

Quantum algorithm

In quantum computing, a quantum algorithm is an algorithm which runs on a realistic model of quantum computation, the most commonly used model being the quantum circuit model of computation. A classic

Postselection

In probability theory, to postselect is to condition a probability space upon the occurrence of a given event. In symbols, once we postselect for an event , the probability of some other event changes

Comp.theory

No description available.

Formal verification

In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal spe

Language Of Temporal Ordering Specification

In computer science Language Of Temporal Ordering Specification (LOTOS) is a formal specification language based on temporal ordering of events. LOTOS is used for communications protocol specification

Representer theorem

For computer science, in statistical learning theory, a representer theorem is any of several related results stating that a minimizer of a regularized empirical risk functional defined over a reprodu

Semigroup action

In algebra and theoretical computer science, an action or act of a semigroup on a set is a rule which associates to each element of the semigroup a transformation of the set in such a way that the pro

Promise theory

Promise Theory, in the context of information science, is a model of voluntary cooperation between individual, autonomous actors or agents who publish their intentions to one another in the form of pr

Recursive definition

In mathematics and computer science, a recursive definition, or inductive definition, is used to define the elements in a set in terms of other elements in the set (Aczel 1977:740ff). Some examples of

Tardiness (scheduling)

In scheduling, tardiness is a measure of a delay in executing certain operations and earliness is a measure of finishing operations before due time. The operations may depend on each other and on the

European Association for Theoretical Computer Science

The European Association for Theoretical Computer Science (EATCS) is an international organization with a European focus, founded in 1972. Its aim is to facilitate the exchange of ideas and results am

Reed–Muller code

Reed–Muller codes are error-correcting codes that are used in wireless communications applications, particularly in deep-space communication. Moreover, the proposed 5G standard relies on the closely r

Turing machine

A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation describing an abstract machine that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite the model's simplicity, it is

Krivine machine

In theoretical computer science, the Krivine machine is an abstract machine (sometimes called virtual machine). As an abstract machine, it shares features with Turing machines and the SECD machine. Th

Chemical computer

A chemical computer, also called a reaction-diffusion computer, Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) computer, or gooware computer, is an unconventional computer based on a semi-solid chemical "soup" where data

ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award

The ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award is awarded annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to the authors of the best doctoral dissertations in computer science and computer engineering. The a

Chaos computing

In theoretical computer science, chaos computing is the idea of using chaotic systems for computation. In particular, chaotic systems can be made to produce all types of logic gates and further allow

Dis-unification (computer science)

Dis-unification, in computer science and logic, is an algorithmic process of solving inequations between symbolic expressions.

Quantum computing

Quantum computing is a type of computation whose operations can harness the phenomena of quantum mechanics, such as superposition, interference, and entanglement. Devices that perform quantum computat

Unrestricted algorithm

An unrestricted algorithm is an algorithm for the computation of a mathematical function that puts no restrictions on the range of the argument or on the precision that may be demanded in the result.

British Colloquium for Theoretical Computer Science

The British Colloquium for Theoretical Computer Science (BCTCS) is an organisation, founded in 1985, that represents the interests of Theoretical Computer Science in the UK, e.g. through representatio

Categorical logic

Categorical logic is the branch of mathematics in which tools and concepts from category theory are applied to the study of mathematical logic. It is also notable for its connections to theoretical co

Angelic non-determinism

In computer science, angelic non-determinism is the execution of a nondeterministic algorithm where particular choices are declared to always favor a desired result, if that result is possible. For ex

Quantum digital signature

A Quantum Digital Signature (QDS) refers to the quantum mechanical equivalent of either a classical digital signature or, more generally, a handwritten signature on a paper document. Like a handwritte

Hub labels

In computer science, hub labels or the hub-labelling algorithm is a method that consumes much fewer resources than the lookup table but is still extremely fast for finding the shortest paths between n

Theory of Computing Systems

Theory of Computing Systems is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Verlag. Published since 1967 as Mathematical Systems Theory and since volume 30 in 1997 under its current title,

Profinite word

In mathematics, more precisely in formal language theory, the profinite words are a generalization of the notion of finite words into a complete topological space. This notion allows the use of topolo

Analysis of Boolean functions

In mathematics and theoretical computer science, analysis of Boolean functions is the study of real-valued functions on or (such functions are sometimes known as pseudo-Boolean functions) from a spect

Glossary of quantum computing

This glossary of quantum computing is a list of definitions of terms and concepts used in quantum computing, its sub-disciplines, and related fields. Bacon–Shor_codeis a Subsystem error correcting cod

Corecursion

In computer science, corecursion is a type of operation that is dual to recursion. Whereas recursion works analytically, starting on data further from a base case and breaking it down into smaller dat

Nerode Prize

The EATCS–IPEC Nerode Prize is a theoretical computer science prize awarded for outstanding research in the area of multivariate algorithmics. It is awarded by the European Association for Theoretical

Quantum complexity theory

Quantum complexity theory is the subfield of computational complexity theory that deals with complexity classes defined using quantum computers, a computational model based on quantum mechanics. It st

Safety and liveness properties

Properties of an execution of a computer program —particularly for concurrent and distributed systems— have long been formulated by giving safety properties ("bad things don't happen") and liveness pr

Algorithmic technique

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithmic technique is a general approach for implementing a process or computation.

Quasi-empiricism in mathematics

Quasi-empiricism in mathematics is the attempt in the philosophy of mathematics to direct philosophers' attention to mathematical practice, in particular, relations with physics, social sciences, and

Correctness (computer science)

In theoretical computer science, an algorithm is correct with respect to a specification if it behaves as specified. Best explored is functional correctness, which refers to the input-output behavior

Regular numerical predicate

In computer science and mathematics, more precisely in automata theory, model theory and formal language, a regular numerical predicate is a kind of relation over integers. Regular numerical predicate

Nominal techniques

Nominal techniques in computer science are a range of techniques, based on , for handling names and binding, e.g. in abstract syntax. Research into nominal sets gave rise to nominal terms, a metalangu

Algorithm engineering

Algorithm engineering focuses on the design, analysis, implementation, optimization, profiling and experimental evaluation of computer algorithms, bridging the gap between algorithm theory and practic

Small-bias sample space

In theoretical computer science, a small-bias sample space (also known as -biased sample space, -biased generator, or small-bias probability space) is a probability distribution that fools parity func

Ranked alphabet

In theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a ranked alphabet is a pair of an ordinary alphabet F and a function Arity: F→. Each letter in F has its arity so it can be used to build te

Hindley–Milner type system

A Hindley–Milner (HM) type system is a classical type system for the lambda calculus with parametric polymorphism. It is also known as Damas–Milner or Damas–Hindley–Milner. It was first described by J

Full-employment theorem

In computer science and mathematics, a full employment theorem is a term used, often humorously, to refer to a theorem which states that no algorithm can optimally perform a particular task done by so

API-Calculus

API Calculus is a program that solves calculus problems using operating systems within a device that solves calculus problems. In 1989 the PI- Calculus was created by Robin Milner and was very success

Complexity function

In computer science, the complexity function of a word or string (a finite or infinite sequence of symbols from some alphabet) is the function that counts the number of distinct factors (substrings of

Journal of Automata, Languages and Combinatorics

The Journal of Automata, Languages and Combinatorics (JALC) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of computer science. It was established in 1965 as the Journal of Information Processing and Cyberneti

Complexity class

In computational complexity theory, a complexity class is a set of computational problems of related resource-based complexity. The two most commonly analyzed resources are time and memory. In general

Recursion (computer science)

In computer science, recursion is a method of solving a computational problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem. Recursion solves such recursive problems

Manifold hypothesis

In theoretical computer science and the study of machine learning, the manifold hypothesis is the hypothesis that many high-dimensional data sets that occur in the real world actually lie along low-di

Concurrence (quantum computing)

In quantum information science, the concurrence is a state invariant involving qubits.

Computability in Europe

The Association Computability in Europe (ACiE) is an international organization of mathematicians, logicians, computer scientists, philosophers, theoretical physicists and others interested in new dev

Neighbour-sensing model

The Neighbour-Sensing mathematical model of hyphal growth is a set of interactive computer models that simulate the way fungi hyphae grow in three-dimensional space. The three-dimensional simulation i

Theoretical computer science

Theoretical computer science (TCS) is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on mathematical aspects of computer science such as the theory of computation, lambda calculus,

Coinduction

In computer science, coinduction is a technique for defining and proving properties of systems of concurrent interacting objects. Coinduction is the mathematical dual to structural induction. Coinduct

Ambient calculus

In computer science, the ambient calculus is a process calculus devised by Luca Cardelli and Andrew D. Gordon in 1998, and used to describe and theorise about concurrent systems that include mobility.

Grammar systems theory

Grammar systems theory is a field of theoretical computer science that studies systems of finite collections of formal grammars generating a formal language. Each grammar works on a string, a so-calle

Tree transducer

In theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a tree transducer (TT) is an abstract machine taking as input a tree, and generating output – generally other trees, but models producing wo

Knowledge Based Software Assistant

The Knowledge Based Software Assistant (KBSA) was a research program funded by the United States Air Force. The goal of the program was to apply concepts from artificial intelligence to the problem of

Bigraph

A bigraph can be modelled as the superposition of a graph (the link graph) and a set of trees (the place graph). Each node of the bigraph is part of a graph and also part of some tree that describes h

Error tolerance (PAC learning)

In PAC learning, error tolerance refers to the ability of an algorithm to learn when the examples received have been corrupted in some way. In fact, this is a very common and important issue since in

Cobham's theorem

Cobham's theorem is a theorem in combinatorics on words that has important connections with number theory, notably transcendental numbers, and automata theory. Informally, the theorem gives the condit

Institution (computer science)

The notion of institution was created by Joseph Goguen and Rod Burstall in the late 1970s, in order to deal with the "population explosion among the logical systems used in computer science". The noti

Knuth's Simpath algorithm

Simpath is an algorithm introduced by Donald Knuth that constructs a zero-suppressed decision diagram (ZDD) representing all simple paths between two vertices in a given graph.

Formal language

In logic, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language consists of words whose letters are taken from an alphabet and are well-formed according to a specific set of rules. The alp

Demonic non-determinism

A term which describes the execution of a non-deterministic program where all choices are made in favour of non-termination.

Least-squares spectral analysis

Least-squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is a method of estimating a frequency spectrum, based on a least squares fit of sinusoids to data samples, similar to Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis, the mos

Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems

Dynamic Data Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS) is a new paradigm whereby the computation and instrumentation aspects of an application system are dynamically integrated in a feed-back control loop,

Institutional model theory

In mathematical logic, institutional model theory generalizes a large portion of first-order model theory to an arbitrary logical system.

Summer School Marktoberdorf

The International Summer School Marktoberdorf is an annual two-week summer school for international computer science and mathematics postgraduate students and other young researchers, held annually si

Pseudorandomness

A pseudorandom sequence of numbers is one that appears to be statistically random, despite having been produced by a completely deterministic and repeatable process.

PEPA

Performance Evaluation Process Algebra (PEPA) is a stochastic process algebra designed for modelling computer and communication systems introduced by Jane Hillston in the 1990s. The language extends c

Occam learning

In computational learning theory, Occam learning is a model of algorithmic learning where the objective of the learner is to output a succinct representation of received training data. This is closely

Motion planning

Motion planning, also path planning (also known as the navigation problem or the piano mover's problem) is a computational problem to find a sequence of valid configurations that moves the object from

Computational learning theory

In computer science, computational learning theory (or just learning theory) is a subfield of artificial intelligence devoted to studying the design and analysis of machine learning algorithms.

Expander mixing lemma

The expander mixing lemma intuitively states that the edges of certain -regular graphs are evenly distributed throughout the graph. In particular, the number of edges between two vertex subsets and is

ACM SIGACT

ACM SIGACT or SIGACT is the Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computation Theory, whose purpose is support of research in theoretical computer science. It wa

Algorithmic logic

Algorithmic logic is a calculus of programs that allows the expression of semantic properties of programs by appropriate logical formulas. It provides a framework that enables proving the formulas fro

LogP machine

The LogP machine is a model for parallel computation.It aims at being more practical than the PRAM model while still allowing for easy analysis of computation.The name is not related to the mathematic

Dominance-based rough set approach

The dominance-based rough set approach (DRSA) is an extension of rough set theory for multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), introduced by Greco, Matarazzo and Słowiński. The main change compared to

Combinatorial optimization

Combinatorial optimization is a subfield of mathematical optimization that consists of finding an optimal object from a finite set of objects, where the set of feasible solutions is discrete or can be

Lowest common ancestor

In graph theory and computer science, the lowest common ancestor (LCA) (also called least common ancestor) of two nodes v and w in a tree or directed acyclic graph (DAG) T is the lowest (i.e. deepest)

Machine learning in physics

Applying classical methods of machine learning to the study of quantum systems is the focus of an emergent area of physics research. A basic example of this is quantum state tomography, where a quantu

Nominal terms (computer science)

Nominal terms are a metalanguage for embedding object languages with binding constructs into. Intuitively, they may be seen as an extension of first-order terms with support for name binding. Conseque

Quantum capacity

In the theory of quantum communication, the quantum capacity is the highest rate at which quantum information can be communicated over many independent uses of a noisy quantum channel from a sender to

Lulu smoothing

In signal processing, Lulu smoothing is a nonlinear mathematical technique for removing impulsive noise from a data sequence such as a time series. It is a nonlinear equivalent to taking a moving aver

Fundamenta Informaticae

Fundamenta Informaticae is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering computer science. The editor-in-chief is Damian Niwiński. It was established in 1977 by the Polish Mathematical Society as Series

Sun–Ni law

Within theoretical computer science, Sun–Ni's Law (or Sun and Ni's Law, also known as memory-bounded speedup), is a memory-bounded speedup model which states that as computing power increases the corr

Granular computing

Granular computing (GrC) is an emerging computing paradigm of information processing that concerns the processing of complex information entities called "information granules", which arise in the proc

Interactive computation

In computer science, interactive computation is a mathematical model for computation that involves input/output communication with the external world during computation.

Simulation (computer science)

In theoretical computer science a simulation is a relation between state transition systems associating systems that behave in the same way in the sense that one system simulates the other. Intuitivel

Bird–Meertens formalism

The Bird–Meertens formalism (BMF) is a calculus for deriving programs from specifications (in a functional-programming setting) by a process of equational reasoning. It was devised by Richard Bird and

Bio-inspired computing

Bio-inspired computing, short for biologically inspired computing, is a field of study which seeks to solve computer science problems using models of biology. It relates to connectionism, social behav

Computational irreducibility

Computational irreducibility is one of the main ideas proposed by Stephen Wolfram in his 2002 book A New Kind of Science, although the concept goes back to studies from the 1980s.

Tree (automata theory)

In automata theory, a tree is a particular way of representing a tree structure as sequences of natural numbers. For example, each node of the tree is a word over set of natural numbers, which helps t

Π-calculus

In theoretical computer science, the π-calculus (or pi-calculus) is a process calculus. The π-calculus allows channel names to be communicated along the channels themselves, and in this way it is able

Scientific community metaphor

In computer science, the scientific community metaphor is a metaphor used to aid understanding scientific communities. The first publications on the scientific community metaphor in 1981 and 1982 invo

Quantum threshold theorem

In quantum computing, the quantum threshold theorem (or quantum fault-tolerance theorem) states that a quantum computer with a physical error rate below a certain threshold can, through application of

Circuit Value Problem

The Circuit Value Problem (or Circuit Evaluation Problem) is the computational problem of computing the output of a given Boolean circuit on a given input. The problem is complete for P under uniform

Indirect self-reference

Indirect self-reference describes an object referring to itself indirectly. For example, define the function f such that f(x) = x(x). Any function passed as an argument to f is invoked with itself as

Bisimulation

In theoretical computer science a bisimulation is a binary relation between state transition systems, associating systems that behave in the same way in that one system simulates the other and vice ve

Computational problem

In theoretical computer science, a computational problem is a problem that may be solved by an algorithm. For example, the problem of factoring "Given a positive integer n, find a nontrivial prime fac

Description number

Description numbers are numbers that arise in the theory of Turing machines. They are very similar to Gödel numbers, and are also occasionally called "Gödel numbers" in the literature. Given some univ

Pattern language (formal languages)

In theoretical computer science, a pattern language is a formal language that can be defined as the set of all particular instances of a string of constants and variables. Pattern Languages were intro

Formal methods

In computer science, formal methods are mathematically rigorous techniques for the specification, development, and verification of software and hardware systems. The use of formal methods for software

Knuth Prize

The Donald E. Knuth Prize is a prize for outstanding contributions to the foundations of computer science, named after the American computer scientist Donald E. Knuth.

Transcriptor

A transcriptor is a transistor-like device composed of DNA and RNA rather than a semiconducting material such as silicon. Prior to its invention in 2013, the transcriptor was considered an important c

Weakest precondition

No description available.

Level ancestor problem

In graph theory and theoretical computer science, the level ancestor problem is the problem of preprocessing a given rooted tree T into a data structure that can determine the ancestor of a given node

Natural computing

Natural computing, also called natural computation, is a terminology introduced to encompass three classes of methods: 1) those that take inspiration from nature for the development of novel problem-s

Spintronics

Spintronics (a portmanteau meaning spin transport electronics), also known as spin electronics, is the study of the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to it

French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation

The National Institute for Research in Digital Science and Technology (Inria) (French: Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies du numérique) is a French national research institutio

Flajolet Lecture Prize

The Philippe Flajolet Lecture Prize is awarded to for contributions to analytic combinatorics and analysis of algorithms, in the fields of theoretical computer science. This prize is named in memory o

Quantum machine learning

Quantum machine learning is the integration of quantum algorithms within machine learning programs. The most common use of the term refers to machine learning algorithms for the analysis of classical

Automated reasoning

In computer science, in particular in knowledge representation and reasoning and metalogic, the area of automated reasoning is dedicated to understanding different aspects of reasoning. The study of a

Exact cover

In the mathematical field of combinatorics, given a collection S of subsets of a set X, an exact cover is a subcollection S* of S such that each element in X is contained in exactly one subset in S*.

Learning augmented algorithm

A learning augmented algorithm is an algorithm that can make use of a prediction to improve its performance.Whereas in regular algorithms just the problem instance is inputted, learning augmented algo

Bridging model

In computer science, a bridging model is an abstract model of a computer which provides a between the physical implementation of the machine and the abstraction available to a programmer of that machi

Calculating Space

Calculating Space (German: Rechnender Raum) is Konrad Zuse's 1969 book on automata theory. He proposed that all processes in the universe are computational. This view is known today as the simulation

Computation

Computation is any type of arithmetic or non-arithmetic calculation that follows a well-defined model (e.g., an algorithm). Mechanical or electronic devices (or, historically, people) that perform com

Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/) is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific problems or to perform a computation. Algori

© 2023 Useful Links.