# Category: Approximations

Rough set
In computer science, a rough set, first described by Polish computer scientist Zdzisław I. Pawlak, is a formal approximation of a crisp set (i.e., conventional set) in terms of a pair of sets which gi
Relaxation (approximation)
In mathematical optimization and related fields, relaxation is a modeling strategy. A relaxation is an approximation of a difficult problem by a nearby problem that is easier to solve. A solution of t
Linearization
In mathematics, linearization is finding the linear approximation to a function at a given point. The linear approximation of a function is the first order Taylor expansion around the point of interes
Approximate computing
Approximate computing is an emerging paradigm for energy-efficient and/or high-performance design. It includes a plethora of computation techniques that return a possibly inaccurate result rather than
Taylor's theorem
In calculus, Taylor's theorem gives an approximation of a k-times differentiable function around a given point by a polynomial of degree k, called the kth-order Taylor polynomial. For a smooth functio
Stirling's approximation
In mathematics, Stirling's approximation (or Stirling's formula) is an approximation for factorials. It is a good approximation, leading to accurate results even for small values of . It is named afte
Precision (computer science)
In computer science, the precision of a numerical quantity is a measure of the detail in which the quantity is expressed. This is usually measured in bits, but sometimes in decimal digits. It is relat
Born–Huang approximation
The Born–Huang approximation (named after Max Born and Huang Kun) is an approximation closely related to the Born–Oppenheimer approximation. It takes into account diagonal nonadiabatic effects in the
Engineering tolerance
Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in: 1. * a physical dimension; 2. * a measured value or physical property of a material, manufactured object, system, or service
Approximation
An approximation is anything that is intentionally similar but not exactly equal to something else.
Milü
Milü (Chinese: 密率; pinyin: mìlǜ; "close ratio"), also known as Zulü (Zu's ratio), is the name given to an approximation to π (pi) found by Chinese mathematician and astronomer Zu Chongzhi in the 5th c
Hartman–Grobman theorem
In mathematics, in the study of dynamical systems, the Hartman–Grobman theorem or linearisation theorem is a theorem about the local behaviour of dynamical systems in the neighbourhood of a hyperbolic
Born–Oppenheimer approximation
In quantum chemistry and molecular physics, the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) approximation is the best-known mathematical approximation in molecular dynamics. Specifically, it is the assumption that the wave
Supersymmetric WKB approximation
In physics, the supersymmetric WKB (SWKB) approximation is an extension of the WKB approximation that uses principles from supersymmetric quantum mechanics to provide estimations on energy eigenvalues
Laplace's approximation
In mathematics, Laplace's approximation fits an un-normalised Gaussian approximation to a (twice differentiable) un-normalised target density. In Bayesian statistical inference this is useful to simul
Back-of-the-envelope calculation
A back-of-the-envelope calculation is a rough calculation, typically jotted down on any available scrap of paper such as an envelope. It is more than a guess but less than an accurate calculation or m
Tolerance interval
A tolerance interval is a statistical interval within which, with some confidence level, a specified proportion of a sampled population falls. "More specifically, a 100×p%/100×(1−α) tolerance interval
Approximations of π
Approximations for the mathematical constant pi (π) in the history of mathematics reached an accuracy within 0.04% of the true value before the beginning of the Common Era. In Chinese mathematics, thi
Variational method (quantum mechanics)
In quantum mechanics, the variational method is one way of finding approximations to the lowest energy eigenstate or ground state, and some excited states. This allows calculating approximate wavefunc
WKB approximation
In mathematical physics, the WKB approximation or WKB method is a method for finding approximate solutions to linear differential equations with spatially varying coefficients. It is typically used fo