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Rough set

In computer science, a rough set, first described by Polish computer scientist Zdzisław I. Pawlak, is a formal approximation of a crisp set (i.e., conventional set) in terms of a pair of sets which gi

Relaxation (approximation)

In mathematical optimization and related fields, relaxation is a modeling strategy. A relaxation is an approximation of a difficult problem by a nearby problem that is easier to solve. A solution of t

Linearization

In mathematics, linearization is finding the linear approximation to a function at a given point. The linear approximation of a function is the first order Taylor expansion around the point of interes

Approximate computing

Approximate computing is an emerging paradigm for energy-efficient and/or high-performance design. It includes a plethora of computation techniques that return a possibly inaccurate result rather than

Taylor's theorem

In calculus, Taylor's theorem gives an approximation of a k-times differentiable function around a given point by a polynomial of degree k, called the kth-order Taylor polynomial. For a smooth functio

Stirling's approximation

In mathematics, Stirling's approximation (or Stirling's formula) is an approximation for factorials. It is a good approximation, leading to accurate results even for small values of . It is named afte

Precision (computer science)

In computer science, the precision of a numerical quantity is a measure of the detail in which the quantity is expressed. This is usually measured in bits, but sometimes in decimal digits. It is relat

Born–Huang approximation

The Born–Huang approximation (named after Max Born and Huang Kun) is an approximation closely related to the Born–Oppenheimer approximation. It takes into account diagonal nonadiabatic effects in the

Engineering tolerance

Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in: 1.
* a physical dimension; 2.
* a measured value or physical property of a material, manufactured object, system, or service

Approximation

An approximation is anything that is intentionally similar but not exactly equal to something else.

Milü

Milü (Chinese: 密率; pinyin: mìlǜ; "close ratio"), also known as Zulü (Zu's ratio), is the name given to an approximation to π (pi) found by Chinese mathematician and astronomer Zu Chongzhi in the 5th c

Hartman–Grobman theorem

In mathematics, in the study of dynamical systems, the Hartman–Grobman theorem or linearisation theorem is a theorem about the local behaviour of dynamical systems in the neighbourhood of a hyperbolic

Born–Oppenheimer approximation

In quantum chemistry and molecular physics, the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) approximation is the best-known mathematical approximation in molecular dynamics. Specifically, it is the assumption that the wave

Supersymmetric WKB approximation

In physics, the supersymmetric WKB (SWKB) approximation is an extension of the WKB approximation that uses principles from supersymmetric quantum mechanics to provide estimations on energy eigenvalues

Laplace's approximation

In mathematics, Laplace's approximation fits an un-normalised Gaussian approximation to a (twice differentiable) un-normalised target density. In Bayesian statistical inference this is useful to simul

Back-of-the-envelope calculation

A back-of-the-envelope calculation is a rough calculation, typically jotted down on any available scrap of paper such as an envelope. It is more than a guess but less than an accurate calculation or m

Tolerance interval

A tolerance interval is a statistical interval within which, with some confidence level, a specified proportion of a sampled population falls. "More specifically, a 100×p%/100×(1−α) tolerance interval

Approximations of π

Approximations for the mathematical constant pi (π) in the history of mathematics reached an accuracy within 0.04% of the true value before the beginning of the Common Era. In Chinese mathematics, thi

Variational method (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, the variational method is one way of finding approximations to the lowest energy eigenstate or ground state, and some excited states. This allows calculating approximate wavefunc

WKB approximation

In mathematical physics, the WKB approximation or WKB method is a method for finding approximate solutions to linear differential equations with spatially varying coefficients. It is typically used fo

Successive-approximation ADC

A successive-approximation ADC is a type of analog-to-digital converter that converts a continuous analog waveform into a discrete digital representation using a binary search through all possible qua

Binomial approximation

The binomial approximation is useful for approximately calculating powers of sums of 1 and a small number x. It states that It is valid when and where and may be real or complex numbers. The benefit o

Tolerance relation

In universal algebra and lattice theory, a tolerance relation on an algebraic structure is a reflexive symmetric relation that is compatible with all operations of the structure. Thus a tolerance is l

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