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Markov constant

In number theory, specifically in Diophantine approximation theory, the Markov constant of an irrational number is the factor for which Dirichlet's approximation theorem can be improved for .

Davenport–Schmidt theorem

In mathematics, specifically the area of Diophantine approximation, the Davenport–Schmidt theorem tells us how well a certain kind of real number can be approximated by another kind. Specifically it t

Diophantine approximation

In number theory, the study of Diophantine approximation deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. It is named after Diophantus of Alexandria. The first problem was to know how

Faltings' product theorem

In arithmetic geometry, Faltings' product theorem gives sufficient conditions for a subvariety of a product of projective spaces to be a product of varieties in the projective spaces. It was introduce

Equidistribution theorem

In mathematics, the equidistribution theorem is the statement that the sequence a, 2a, 3a, ... mod 1 is uniformly distributed on the circle , when a is an irrational number. It is a special case of th

Heilbronn set

In mathematics, a Heilbronn set is an infinite set S of natural numbers for which every real number can be arbitrarily closely approximated by a fraction whose denominator is in S. For any given real

Schneider–Lang theorem

In mathematics, the Schneider–Lang theorem is a refinement by of a theorem of about the transcendence of values of meromorphic functions. The theorem implies both the Hermite–Lindemann and Gelfond–Sch

Liouville number

In number theory, a Liouville number is a real number x with the property that, for every positive integer n, there exists a pair of integers (p, q) with q > 1 such that . Liouville numbers are "almos

Subspace theorem

In mathematics, the subspace theorem says that points of small height in projective space lie in a finite number of hyperplanes. It is a result obtained by Wolfgang M. Schmidt.

Littlewood conjecture

In mathematics, the Littlewood conjecture is an open problem (as of May 2021) in Diophantine approximation, proposed by John Edensor Littlewood around 1930. It states that for any two real numbers α a

Auxiliary function

In mathematics, auxiliary functions are an important construction in transcendental number theory. They are functions that appear in most proofs in this area of mathematics and that have specific, des

Roth's theorem

In mathematics, Roth's theorem is a fundamental result in diophantine approximation to algebraic numbers. It is of a qualitative type, stating that algebraic numbers cannot have many rational number a

Van der Corput sequence

A van der Corput sequence is an example of the simplest one-dimensional low-discrepancy sequence over the unit interval; it was first described in 1935 by the Dutch mathematician J. G. van der Corput.

Dirichlet's approximation theorem

In number theory, Dirichlet's theorem on Diophantine approximation, also called Dirichlet's approximation theorem, states that for any real numbers and , with , there exist integers and such that and

Discrepancy theory

In mathematics, discrepancy theory describes the deviation of a situation from the state one would like it to be in. It is also called the theory of irregularities of distribution. This refers to the

Markov number

A Markov number or Markoff number is a positive integer x, y or z that is part of a solution to the Markov Diophantine equation studied by Andrey Markoff . The first few Markov numbers are 1, 2, 5, 13

Markov spectrum

In mathematics, the Markov spectrum devised by Andrey Markov is a complicated set of real numbers arising in Markov Diophantine equation and also in the theory of Diophantine approximation.

Discrepancy of hypergraphs

Discrepancy of hypergraphs is an area of discrepancy theory.

Beatty sequence

In mathematics, a Beatty sequence (or homogeneous Beatty sequence) is the sequence of integers found by taking the floor of the positive multiples of a positive irrational number. Beatty sequences are

Low-discrepancy sequence

In mathematics, a low-discrepancy sequence is a sequence with the property that for all values of N, its subsequence x1, ..., xN has a low discrepancy. Roughly speaking, the discrepancy of a sequence

Duffin–Schaeffer conjecture

The Duffin–Schaeffer conjecture was a conjecture (now a theorem) in mathematics, specifically, the Diophantine approximation proposed by R. J. Duffin and A. C. Schaeffer in 1941. It states that if is

Weyl's inequality

In linear algebra, Weyl's inequality is a theorem about the changes to eigenvalues of an Hermitian matrix that is perturbed. It can be used to estimate the eigenvalues of a perturbed Hermitian matrix.

Equidistributed sequence

In mathematics, a sequence (s1, s2, s3, ...) of real numbers is said to be equidistributed, or uniformly distributed, if the proportion of terms falling in a subinterval is proportional to the length

Harmonious set

In mathematics, a harmonious set is a subset of a locally compact abelian group on which every weak character may be uniformly approximated by strong characters. Equivalently, a suitably defined dual

Hurwitz's theorem (number theory)

In number theory, Hurwitz's theorem, named after Adolf Hurwitz, gives a bound on a Diophantine approximation. The theorem states that for every irrational number ξ there are infinitely many relatively

Van der Corput inequality

In mathematics, the van der Corput inequality is a corollary of the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality that is useful in the study of correlations among vectors, and hence random variables. It is also useful i

Lagrange number

In mathematics, the Lagrange numbers are a sequence of numbers that appear in bounds relating to the approximation of irrational numbers by rational numbers. They are linked to Hurwitz's theorem.

Three-gap theorem

In mathematics, the three-gap theorem, three-distance theorem, or Steinhaus conjecture states that if one places n points on a circle, at angles of θ, 2θ, 3θ, ... from the starting point, then there w

Mahler's 3/2 problem

In mathematics, Mahler's 3/2 problem concerns the existence of "Z-numbers". A Z-number is a real number x such that the fractional parts of are less than 1/2 for all positive integers n. Kurt Mahler c

Proof that e is irrational

The number e was introduced by Jacob Bernoulli in 1683. More than half a century later, Euler, who had been a student of Jacob's younger brother Johann, proved that e is irrational; that is, that it c

Oppenheim conjecture

In Diophantine approximation, the Oppenheim conjecture concerns representations of numbers by real quadratic forms in several variables. It was formulated in 1929 by Alexander Oppenheim and later the

Restricted partial quotients

In mathematics, and more particularly in the analytic theory of regular continued fractions, an infinite regular continued fraction x is said to be restricted, or composed of restricted partial quotie

Siegel's lemma

In mathematics, specifically in transcendental number theory and Diophantine approximation, Siegel's lemma refers to bounds on the solutions of linear equations obtained by the construction of auxilia

Kronecker's theorem

In mathematics, Kronecker's theorem is a theorem about diophantine approximation, introduced by Leopold Kronecker. Kronecker's approximation theorem had been firstly proved by L. Kronecker in the end

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