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Begriffsschrift

Begriffsschrift (German for, roughly, "concept-script") is a book on logic by Gottlob Frege, published in 1879, and the formal system set out in that book. Begriffsschrift is usually translated as con

First-order predicate

In mathematical logic, a first-order predicate is a predicate that takes only individual(s) constants or variables as argument(s). Compare second-order predicate and higher-order predicate. This is no

Monadic predicate calculus

In logic, the monadic predicate calculus (also called monadic first-order logic) is the fragment of first-order logic in which all relation symbols in the signature are monadic (that is, they take onl

Temperature paradox

The Temperature Paradox or Partee's Paradox is a classic puzzle in formal semantics and philosophical logic. Formulated by Barbara Partee in the 1970s, it consists of the following argument, which spe

Existential generalization

In predicate logic, existential generalization (also known as existential introduction, ∃I) is a valid rule of inference that allows one to move from a specific statement, or one instance, to a quanti

Predicate (mathematical logic)

In logic, a predicate is a symbol which represents a property or a relation. For instance, in the first order formula , the symbol is a predicate which applies to the individual constant . Similarly,

Tarski's World

Tarski's World is a computer-based introduction to first-order logic written by Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy. It is named after the mathematical logician Alfred Tarski. The package includes a book,

Scope (logic)

In logic, the scope of a quantifier or a quantification is the range in the formula where the quantifier "engages in". It is put right after the quantifier, often in parentheses. Some authors describe

Free variables and bound variables

In mathematics, and in other disciplines involving formal languages, including mathematical logic and computer science, a free variable is a notation (symbol) that specifies places in an expression wh

Clause (logic)

In logic, a clause is a propositional formula formed from a finite collection of literals (atoms or their negations) and logical connectives. A clause is true either whenever at least one of the liter

Mereology

In logic, philosophy and related fields, mereology (from Greek μέρος 'part' (root: μερε-, mere-, 'part') and the suffix -logy, 'study, discussion, science') is the study of parts and the wholes they f

Second-order predicate

In mathematical logic, a second-order predicate is a predicate that takes a first-order predicate as an argument. Compare higher-order predicate. The idea of second order predication was introduced by

Induction, bounding and least number principles

In first-order arithmetic, the induction principles, bounding principles, and least number principles are three related families of first-order principles, which may or may not hold in nonstandard mod

Independence of premise

In proof theory and constructive mathematics, the principle of independence of premise states that if φ and ∃ x θ are sentences in a formal theory and φ → ∃ x θ is provable, then ∃ x (φ → θ) is provab

Intensional logic

Intensional logic is an approach to predicate logic that extends first-order logic, which has quantifiers that range over the individuals of a universe (extensions), by additional quantifiers that ran

Empty domain

In first-order logic the empty domain is the empty set having no members. In traditional and classical logic domains are restrictedly non-empty in order that certain theorems be valid. Interpretations

Standard translation

In modal logic, standard translation is a way of transforming formulas of modal logic into formulas of first-order logic which capture the meaning of the modal formulas. Standard translation is define

Propositional function

In propositional calculus, a propositional function or a predicate is a sentence expressed in a way that would assume the value of true or false, except that within the sentence there is a variable (x

Extension (predicate logic)

The extension of a predicate – a truth-valued function – is the set of tuples of values that, used as arguments, satisfy the predicate. Such a set of tuples is a relation.

Atomic formula

In mathematical logic, an atomic formula (also known as an atom or a prime formula) is a formula with no deeper propositional structure, that is, a formula that contains no logical connectives or equi

Existential instantiation

In predicate logic, existential instantiation (also called existential elimination) is a rule of inference which says that, given a formula of the form , one may infer for a new constant symbol c. The

Higher-order logic

In mathematics and logic, a higher-order logic is a form of predicate logic that is distinguished from first-order logic by additional quantifiers and, sometimes, stronger semantics. Higher-order logi

Universal generalization

In predicate logic, generalization (also universal generalization or universal introduction, GEN) is a valid inference rule. It states that if has been derived, then can be derived.

Universal instantiation

In predicate logic, universal instantiation (UI; also called universal specification or universal elimination, and sometimes confused with dictum de omni) is a valid rule of inference from a truth abo

Sentence (mathematical logic)

In mathematical logic, a sentence (or closed formula) of a predicate logic is a Boolean-valued well-formed formula with no free variables. A sentence can be viewed as expressing a proposition, somethi

Atomic sentence

In logic and analytic philosophy, an atomic sentence is a type of declarative sentence which is either true or false (may also be referred to as a proposition, statement or truthbearer) and which cann

Bernays–Schönfinkel class

The Bernays–Schönfinkel class (also known as Bernays–Schönfinkel–Ramsey class) of formulas, named after Paul Bernays, Moses Schönfinkel and Frank P. Ramsey, is a fragment of first-order logic formulas

Formation rule

In mathematical logic, formation rules are rules for describing which strings of symbols formed from the alphabet of a formal language are syntactically valid within the language. These rules only add

Drinker paradox

The drinker paradox (also known as the drinker's theorem, the drinker's principle, or the drinking principle) is a theorem of classical predicate logic that can be stated as "There is someone in the p

Predicate functor logic

In mathematical logic, predicate functor logic (PFL) is one of several ways to express first-order logic (also known as predicate logic) by purely algebraic means, i.e., without quantified variables.

Predicate variable

In mathematical logic, a predicate variable is a predicate letter which functions as a "placeholder" for a relation (between terms), but which has not been specifically assigned any particular relatio

Quantifier (logic)

In logic, a quantifier is an operator that specifies how many individuals in the domain of discourse satisfy an open formula. For instance, the universal quantifier in the first order formula expresse

Domain of discourse

In the formal sciences, the domain of discourse, also called the universe of discourse, universal set, or simply universe, is the set of entities over which certain variables of interest in some forma

Quantifier rank

In mathematical logic, the quantifier rank of a formula is the depth of nesting of its quantifiers. It plays an essential role in model theory. Notice that the quantifier rank is a property of the for

First-order logic

First-order logic—also known as predicate logic, quantificational logic, and first-order predicate calculus—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer

Fixed-point logic

In mathematical logic, fixed-point logics are extensions of classical predicate logic that have been introduced to express recursion. Their development has been motivated by descriptive complexity the

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