Category: Pseudorandom number generators

Mersenne Twister
The Mersenne Twister is a general-purpose pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) developed in 1997 by (松本 眞) and (西村 拓士). Its name derives from the fact that its period length is chosen to be a Mersenne
Ratio of uniforms
The ratio of uniforms is a method initially proposed by Kinderman and Monahan in 1977 for pseudo-random number sampling, that is, for drawing random samples from a statistical distribution. Like rejec
Ziggurat algorithm
The ziggurat algorithm is an algorithm for pseudo-random number sampling. Belonging to the class of rejection sampling algorithms, it relies on an underlying source of uniformly-distributed random num
Middle-square method
In mathematics and computer science, the middle-square method is a method of generating pseudorandom numbers. In practice it is a highly flawed method for many practical purposes, since its period is
Permuted congruential generator
A permuted congruential generator (PCG) is a pseudorandom number generation algorithm developed in 2014 which applies an output permutation function to improve the statistical properties of a modulo-2
Inversive congruential generator
Inversive congruential generators are a type of nonlinear congruential pseudorandom number generator, which use the modular multiplicative inverse (if it exists) to generate the next number in a seque
Feedback with Carry Shift Registers
In sequence design, a Feedback with Carry Shift Register (or FCSR) is the arithmetic or with carry analog of a linear-feedback shift register (LFSR). If is an integer, then an N-ary FCSR of length is
MIXMAX generator
The MIXMAX generator is a family of pseudorandom number generators (PRNG) and is based on Anosov C-systems (Anosov diffeomorphism) and Kolmogorov K-systems (Kolmogorov automorphism). It was introduced
Xorshift random number generators, also called shift-register generators, are a class of pseudorandom number generators that were invented by George Marsaglia. They are a subset of linear-feedback shi
RANDU is a linear congruential pseudorandom number generator (LCG) of the Park–Miller type, which was used primarily in the 1960s and 1970s. It is defined by the recurrence: with the initial seed numb
Full cycle
In a pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), a full cycle or full period is the behavior of a PRNG over its set of valid states. In particular, a PRNG is said to have a full cycle if, for any valid seed
Blum Blum Shub
Blum Blum Shub (B.B.S.) is a pseudorandom number generator proposed in 1986 by Lenore Blum, Manuel Blum and Michael Shub that is derived from Michael O. Rabin's one-way function.
Next-bit test
In cryptography and the theory of computation, the next-bit test is a test against pseudo-random number generators. We say that a sequence of bits passes the next bit test for at any position in the s
NIST SP 800-90A
NIST SP 800-90A ("SP" stands for "special publication") is a publication by the National Institute of Standards and Technology with the title Recommendation for Random Number Generation Using Determin
xoroshiro128+ (named after its operations: XOR, rotate, shift, rotate) is a pseudorandom number generator intended as a successor to xorshift+. Instead of perpetuating Marsaglia's tradition of xorshif
Multiply-with-carry pseudorandom number generator
In computer science, multiply-with-carry (MWC) is a method invented by George Marsaglia for generating sequences of random integers based on an initial set from two to many thousands of randomly chose
Solitaire (cipher)
The Solitaire cryptographic algorithm was designed by Bruce Schneier at the request of Neal Stephenson for use in his novel Cryptonomicon, in which field agents use it to communicate securely without
Marsaglia polar method
The Marsaglia polar method is a pseudo-random number sampling method for generating a pair of independent standard normal random variables. Standard normal random variables are frequently used in comp
Counter-based random number generator (CBRNG)
A counter-based random number generation (CBRNG, also known as a counter-based pseudo-random number generator, or CBPRNG) is a kind of pseudorandom number generator that uses only an integer counter a
Fortuna (PRNG)
Fortuna is a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) devised by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson and published in 2003. It is named after Fortuna, the Roman goddess of chance. F
NIST SP 800-90B
NIST SP 800-90B ("SP" stands for "special publication") is a publication by the National Institute of Standards and Technology with the title Recommendation for the Entropy Sources Used for Random Bit
Naor–Reingold pseudorandom function
In 1997, Moni Naor and Omer Reingold described efficient constructions for various cryptographic primitives in private key as well as public-key cryptography. Their result is the construction of an ef
Linear congruential generator
A linear congruential generator (LCG) is an algorithm that yields a sequence of pseudo-randomized numbers calculated with a discontinuous piecewise linear equation. The method represents one of the ol
Wichmann–Hill is a pseudorandom number generator proposed in 1982 by and David Hill. It consists of three linear congruential generators with different prime moduli, each of which is used to produce a
Combined linear congruential generator
A combined linear congruential generator (CLCG) is a pseudo-random number generator algorithm based on combining two or more linear congruential generators (LCG). A traditional LCG has a period which
KISS (algorithm)
KISS (Keep it Simple Stupid) is a family of pseudorandom number generators introduced by George Marsaglia. Starting from 1998 Marsaglia posted on various newsgroups including , comp.lang.c, and severa
Subtract with carry
Subtract-with-carry is a pseudorandom number generator: one of many algorithms designed to produce a long series of random-looking numbers based on a small amount of starting data. It is of the lagged
Spectral test
The spectral test is a statistical test for the quality of a class of pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs), the linear congruential generators (LCGs). LCGs have a property that when plotted in 2 or
In cryptography, RC4 (Rivest Cipher 4, also known as ARC4 or ARCFOUR, meaning Alleged RC4, see below) is a stream cipher. While it is remarkable for its simplicity and speed in software, multiple vuln
List of random number generators
Random number generators are important in many kinds of technical applications, including physics, engineering or mathematical computer studies (e.g., Monte Carlo simulations), cryptography and gambli
Alias method
In computing, the alias method is a family of efficient algorithms for sampling from a discrete probability distribution, published in 1974 by A. J. Walker. That is, it returns integer values 1 ≤ i ≤
The ACORN or ″Additive Congruential Random Number″ generators are a robust family of PRNGs (pseudorandom number generators) for sequences of uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers, introduced in
Well equidistributed long-period linear
The Well Equidistributed Long-period Linear (WELL) is a family of pseudorandom number generators developed in 2006 by , , and (松本 眞). It is a form of linear-feedback shift register optimized for softw
Random seed
A random seed (or seed state, or just seed) is a number (or vector) used to initialize a pseudorandom number generator. For a seed to be used in a pseudorandom number generator, it does not need to be
Yarrow algorithm
The Yarrow algorithm is a family of cryptographic pseudorandom number generators (CPRNG) devised by John Kelsey, Bruce Schneier, and Niels Ferguson and published in 1999. The Yarrow algorithm is expli
Complementary sequences
In applied mathematics, complementary sequences (CS) are pairs of sequences with the useful property that their out-of-phase aperiodic autocorrelation coefficients sum to zero. Binary complementary se
Entropy (computing)
In computing, entropy is the randomness collected by an operating system or application for use in cryptography or other uses that require random data. This randomness is often collected from hardware
Linear-feedback shift register
In computing, a linear-feedback shift register (LFSR) is a shift register whose input bit is a linear function of its previous state. The most commonly used linear function of single bits is exclusive
Generalized inversive congruential pseudorandom numbers
An approach to nonlinear congruential methods of generating uniform pseudorandom numbers in the interval [0,1) is the Inversive congruential generator with prime modulus. A generalization for arbitrar
Non-uniform random variate generation
Non-uniform random variate generation or pseudo-random number sampling is the numerical practice of generating pseudo-random numbers (PRN) that follow a given probability distribution.Methods are typi
Pseudorandom number generator
A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), also known as a deterministic random bit generator (DRBG), is an algorithm for generating a sequence of numbers whose properties approximate the properties of s
Self-shrinking generator
A self-shrinking generator is a pseudorandom generator that is based on the shrinking generator concept. Variants of the self-shrinking generator based on a linear-feedback shift register (LFSR) are s
Shrinking generator
In cryptography, the shrinking generator is a form of pseudorandom number generator intended to be used in a stream cipher. It was published in Crypto 1993 by Don Coppersmith, Hugo Krawczyk, and . The
Dual_EC_DRBG (Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator) is an algorithm that was presented as a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (CSPRNG) using methods in elliptic
Lagged Fibonacci generator
A Lagged Fibonacci generator (LFG or sometimes LFib) is an example of a pseudorandom number generator. This class of random number generator is aimed at being an improvement on the 'standard' linear c
Random number generator attack
The security of cryptographic systems depends on some secret data that is known to authorized persons but unknown and unpredictable to others. To achieve this unpredictability, some randomization is t
CryptGenRandom is a deprecated cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator function that is included in Microsoft CryptoAPI. In Win32 programs, Microsoft recommends its use anywhere random
Analog feedback shift register
An analog feedback shift register (AFSR) is a generalization of the (binary, digital) linear-feedback shift register (LFSR). While binary LFSRs require less power to generate spread spectrum signals t
Lehmer random number generator
The Lehmer random number generator (named after D. H. Lehmer), sometimes also referred to as the Park–Miller random number generator (after Stephen K. Park and Keith W. Miller), is a type of linear co