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Mersenne Twister

The Mersenne Twister is a general-purpose pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) developed in 1997 by (松本 眞) and (西村 拓士). Its name derives from the fact that its period length is chosen to be a Mersenne

Ratio of uniforms

The ratio of uniforms is a method initially proposed by Kinderman and Monahan in 1977 for pseudo-random number sampling, that is, for drawing random samples from a statistical distribution. Like rejec

Ziggurat algorithm

The ziggurat algorithm is an algorithm for pseudo-random number sampling. Belonging to the class of rejection sampling algorithms, it relies on an underlying source of uniformly-distributed random num

Middle-square method

In mathematics and computer science, the middle-square method is a method of generating pseudorandom numbers. In practice it is a highly flawed method for many practical purposes, since its period is

Permuted congruential generator

A permuted congruential generator (PCG) is a pseudorandom number generation algorithm developed in 2014 which applies an output permutation function to improve the statistical properties of a modulo-2

Inversive congruential generator

Inversive congruential generators are a type of nonlinear congruential pseudorandom number generator, which use the modular multiplicative inverse (if it exists) to generate the next number in a seque

Feedback with Carry Shift Registers

In sequence design, a Feedback with Carry Shift Register (or FCSR) is the arithmetic or with carry analog of a linear-feedback shift register (LFSR). If is an integer, then an N-ary FCSR of length is

MIXMAX generator

The MIXMAX generator is a family of pseudorandom number generators (PRNG) and is based on Anosov C-systems (Anosov diffeomorphism) and Kolmogorov K-systems (Kolmogorov automorphism). It was introduced

Xorshift

Xorshift random number generators, also called shift-register generators, are a class of pseudorandom number generators that were invented by George Marsaglia. They are a subset of linear-feedback shi

RANDU

RANDU is a linear congruential pseudorandom number generator (LCG) of the Park–Miller type, which was used primarily in the 1960s and 1970s. It is defined by the recurrence: with the initial seed numb

Full cycle

In a pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), a full cycle or full period is the behavior of a PRNG over its set of valid states. In particular, a PRNG is said to have a full cycle if, for any valid seed

Blum Blum Shub

Blum Blum Shub (B.B.S.) is a pseudorandom number generator proposed in 1986 by Lenore Blum, Manuel Blum and Michael Shub that is derived from Michael O. Rabin's one-way function.

Next-bit test

In cryptography and the theory of computation, the next-bit test is a test against pseudo-random number generators. We say that a sequence of bits passes the next bit test for at any position in the s

NIST SP 800-90A

NIST SP 800-90A ("SP" stands for "special publication") is a publication by the National Institute of Standards and Technology with the title Recommendation for Random Number Generation Using Determin

Xoroshiro128+

xoroshiro128+ (named after its operations: XOR, rotate, shift, rotate) is a pseudorandom number generator intended as a successor to xorshift+. Instead of perpetuating Marsaglia's tradition of xorshif

Multiply-with-carry pseudorandom number generator

In computer science, multiply-with-carry (MWC) is a method invented by George Marsaglia for generating sequences of random integers based on an initial set from two to many thousands of randomly chose

Solitaire (cipher)

The Solitaire cryptographic algorithm was designed by Bruce Schneier at the request of Neal Stephenson for use in his novel Cryptonomicon, in which field agents use it to communicate securely without

Marsaglia polar method

The Marsaglia polar method is a pseudo-random number sampling method for generating a pair of independent standard normal random variables. Standard normal random variables are frequently used in comp

Counter-based random number generator (CBRNG)

A counter-based random number generation (CBRNG, also known as a counter-based pseudo-random number generator, or CBPRNG) is a kind of pseudorandom number generator that uses only an integer counter a

Fortuna (PRNG)

Fortuna is a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) devised by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson and published in 2003. It is named after Fortuna, the Roman goddess of chance. F

NIST SP 800-90B

NIST SP 800-90B ("SP" stands for "special publication") is a publication by the National Institute of Standards and Technology with the title Recommendation for the Entropy Sources Used for Random Bit

Naor–Reingold pseudorandom function

In 1997, Moni Naor and Omer Reingold described efficient constructions for various cryptographic primitives in private key as well as public-key cryptography. Their result is the construction of an ef

Linear congruential generator

A linear congruential generator (LCG) is an algorithm that yields a sequence of pseudo-randomized numbers calculated with a discontinuous piecewise linear equation. The method represents one of the ol

Wichmann–Hill

Wichmann–Hill is a pseudorandom number generator proposed in 1982 by and David Hill. It consists of three linear congruential generators with different prime moduli, each of which is used to produce a

Combined linear congruential generator

A combined linear congruential generator (CLCG) is a pseudo-random number generator algorithm based on combining two or more linear congruential generators (LCG). A traditional LCG has a period which

KISS (algorithm)

KISS (Keep it Simple Stupid) is a family of pseudorandom number generators introduced by George Marsaglia. Starting from 1998 Marsaglia posted on various newsgroups including , comp.lang.c, and severa

Subtract with carry

Subtract-with-carry is a pseudorandom number generator: one of many algorithms designed to produce a long series of random-looking numbers based on a small amount of starting data. It is of the lagged

Spectral test

The spectral test is a statistical test for the quality of a class of pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs), the linear congruential generators (LCGs). LCGs have a property that when plotted in 2 or

RC4

In cryptography, RC4 (Rivest Cipher 4, also known as ARC4 or ARCFOUR, meaning Alleged RC4, see below) is a stream cipher. While it is remarkable for its simplicity and speed in software, multiple vuln

List of random number generators

Random number generators are important in many kinds of technical applications, including physics, engineering or mathematical computer studies (e.g., Monte Carlo simulations), cryptography and gambli

Alias method

In computing, the alias method is a family of efficient algorithms for sampling from a discrete probability distribution, published in 1974 by A. J. Walker. That is, it returns integer values 1 ≤ i ≤

ACORN (PRNG)

The ACORN or ″Additive Congruential Random Number″ generators are a robust family of PRNGs (pseudorandom number generators) for sequences of uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers, introduced in

Well equidistributed long-period linear

The Well Equidistributed Long-period Linear (WELL) is a family of pseudorandom number generators developed in 2006 by , , and (松本 眞). It is a form of linear-feedback shift register optimized for softw

Random seed

A random seed (or seed state, or just seed) is a number (or vector) used to initialize a pseudorandom number generator. For a seed to be used in a pseudorandom number generator, it does not need to be

Yarrow algorithm

The Yarrow algorithm is a family of cryptographic pseudorandom number generators (CPRNG) devised by John Kelsey, Bruce Schneier, and Niels Ferguson and published in 1999. The Yarrow algorithm is expli

Complementary sequences

In applied mathematics, complementary sequences (CS) are pairs of sequences with the useful property that their out-of-phase aperiodic autocorrelation coefficients sum to zero. Binary complementary se

Entropy (computing)

In computing, entropy is the randomness collected by an operating system or application for use in cryptography or other uses that require random data. This randomness is often collected from hardware

Linear-feedback shift register

In computing, a linear-feedback shift register (LFSR) is a shift register whose input bit is a linear function of its previous state. The most commonly used linear function of single bits is exclusive

Generalized inversive congruential pseudorandom numbers

An approach to nonlinear congruential methods of generating uniform pseudorandom numbers in the interval [0,1) is the Inversive congruential generator with prime modulus. A generalization for arbitrar

Non-uniform random variate generation

Non-uniform random variate generation or pseudo-random number sampling is the numerical practice of generating pseudo-random numbers (PRN) that follow a given probability distribution.Methods are typi

Pseudorandom number generator

A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), also known as a deterministic random bit generator (DRBG), is an algorithm for generating a sequence of numbers whose properties approximate the properties of s

Self-shrinking generator

A self-shrinking generator is a pseudorandom generator that is based on the shrinking generator concept. Variants of the self-shrinking generator based on a linear-feedback shift register (LFSR) are s

Shrinking generator

In cryptography, the shrinking generator is a form of pseudorandom number generator intended to be used in a stream cipher. It was published in Crypto 1993 by Don Coppersmith, Hugo Krawczyk, and . The

Dual EC DRBG

Dual_EC_DRBG (Dual Elliptic Curve Deterministic Random Bit Generator) is an algorithm that was presented as a cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator (CSPRNG) using methods in elliptic

Lagged Fibonacci generator

A Lagged Fibonacci generator (LFG or sometimes LFib) is an example of a pseudorandom number generator. This class of random number generator is aimed at being an improvement on the 'standard' linear c

Random number generator attack

The security of cryptographic systems depends on some secret data that is known to authorized persons but unknown and unpredictable to others. To achieve this unpredictability, some randomization is t

CryptGenRandom

CryptGenRandom is a deprecated cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator function that is included in Microsoft CryptoAPI. In Win32 programs, Microsoft recommends its use anywhere random

Analog feedback shift register

An analog feedback shift register (AFSR) is a generalization of the (binary, digital) linear-feedback shift register (LFSR). While binary LFSRs require less power to generate spread spectrum signals t

Lehmer random number generator

The Lehmer random number generator (named after D. H. Lehmer), sometimes also referred to as the Park–Miller random number generator (after Stephen K. Park and Keith W. Miller), is a type of linear co

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