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Trusted Platform Module

Trusted Platform Module (TPM, also known as ISO/IEC 11889) is an international standard for a secure cryptoprocessor, a dedicated microcontroller designed to secure hardware through integrated cryptog

Random number book

A random number book is a book whose main content is a large number of random numbers or random digits. Such books were used in early cryptography and experimental design, and were published by the Ra

Randomization

Randomization is the process of making something random. Randomization is not haphazard; instead, a random process is a sequence of random variables describing a process whose outcomes do not follow a

MIXMAX generator

The MIXMAX generator is a family of pseudorandom number generators (PRNG) and is based on Anosov C-systems (Anosov diffeomorphism) and Kolmogorov K-systems (Kolmogorov automorphism). It was introduced

TestU01

TestU01 is a software library, implemented in the ANSI C language, that offers a collection of utilities for the empirical randomness testing of random number generators (RNGs). The library was first

QuintessenceLabs

QuintessenceLabs Pty Ltd. (or QuintessenceLabs) is a cybersecurity company headquartered in Canberra, Australia with offices in San Jose, California. QuintessenceLabs produces encryption key and polic

RDRAND

RDRAND (for "read random"; known as Intel Secure Key Technology, previously known as Bull Mountain) is an instruction for returning random numbers from an Intel on-chip hardware random number generato

Random number generation

Random number generation is a process by which, often by means of a random number generator (RNG), a sequence of numbers or symbols that cannot be reasonably predicted better than by random chance is

Marsaglia's theorem

In computational number theory, Marsaglia's theorem connects modular arithmetic and analytic geometry to describe the flaws with the pseudorandom numbers resulting from a linear congruential generator

Random.org

Random.org (stylized as RANDOM.ORG) is a website that produces random numbers based on atmospheric noise.In addition to generating random numbers in a specified range and subject to a specified probab

/dev/random

In Unix-like operating systems, /dev/random and /dev/urandom are special files that serve as cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generators. They allow access to environmental noise collected

Diehard tests

The diehard tests are a battery of statistical tests for measuring the quality of a random number generator. They were developed by George Marsaglia over several years and first published in 1995 on a

A Million Random Digits with 100,000 Normal Deviates

A Million Random Digits with 100,000 Normal Deviates is a random number book by the RAND Corporation, originally published in 1955. The book, consisting primarily of a random number table, was an impo

Randomness merger

In extractor theory, a randomness merger is a function which extracts randomness out of a set of random variables, provided that at least one of them is uniformly random. Its name stems from the fact

Randomness extractor

A randomness extractor, often simply called an "extractor", is a function, which being applied to output from a weakly random entropy source, together with a short, uniformly random seed, generates a

Random number table

Random number tables have been used in statistics for tasks such as selected random samples. This was much more effective than manually selecting the random samples (with dice, cards, etc.). Nowadays,

AN/CYZ-9

The AN/CYZ-9 is a hardware random number generator fielded by the US National Security Agency in the 1990s. It was used in initial phases of the US military's Electronic Key Management System (EKMS) T

Nothing-up-my-sleeve number

In cryptography, nothing-up-my-sleeve numbers are any numbers which, by their construction, are above suspicion of hidden properties. They are used in creating cryptographic functions such as hashes a

List of random number generators

Random number generators are important in many kinds of technical applications, including physics, engineering or mathematical computer studies (e.g., Monte Carlo simulations), cryptography and gambli

Low-discrepancy sequence

In mathematics, a low-discrepancy sequence is a sequence with the property that for all values of N, its subsequence x1, ..., xN has a low discrepancy. Roughly speaking, the discrepancy of a sequence

ACORN (PRNG)

The ACORN or ″Additive Congruential Random Number″ generators are a robust family of PRNGs (pseudorandom number generators) for sequences of uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers, introduced in

Bach's algorithm

Bach's algorithm is a probabilistic polynomial time algorithm for generating random numbers along with their factorizations, named after its discoverer, Eric Bach. It is of interest because no algorit

Entropy estimation

In various science/engineering applications, such as independent component analysis, image analysis, genetic analysis, speech recognition, manifold learning, and time delay estimation it is useful to

Hardware random number generator

In computing, a hardware random number generator (HRNG) or true random number generator (TRNG) is a device that generates random numbers from a physical process, rather than by means of an algorithm.

Diceware

Diceware is a method for creating passphrases, passwords, and other cryptographic variables using ordinary dice as a hardware random number generator. For each word in the passphrase, five rolls of a

Noise generator

A noise generator is a circuit that produces electrical noise (i.e., a random signal). Noise generators are used to test signals for measuring noise figure, frequency response, and other parameters. N

Lavarand

Lavarand was a hardware random number generator designed by Silicon Graphics that worked by taking pictures of the patterns made by the floating material in lava lamps, extracting random data from the

Clock drift

Clock drift refers to several related phenomena where a clock does not run at exactly the same rate as a reference clock. That is, after some time the clock "drifts apart" or gradually desynchronizes

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