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Determinism

Determinism is a philosophical view, where all events are determined completely by previously existing causes. Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have developed from diverse a

History of randomness

In ancient history, the concepts of chance and randomness were intertwined with that of fate. Many ancient peoples threw dice to determine fate, and this later evolved into games of chance. At the sam

Cellular noise

Cellular noise is random variability in quantities arising in cellular biology. For example, cells which are genetically identical, even within the same tissue, are often observed to have different ex

Randomness

In common usage, randomness is the apparent or actual lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps often has no order and does not follow an intelligible

Philosophical interpretation of classical physics

Classical Newtonian physics has, formally, been replaced by quantum mechanics on the small scale and relativity on the large scale. Because most humans continue to think in terms of the kind of events

Aleatoricism

Aleatoricism or aleatorism, the noun associated with the adjectival aleatory and aleatoric, is a term popularised by the musical composer Pierre Boulez, but also Witold Lutosławski and Franco Evangeli

Apophenia

Apophenia (/æpoʊˈfiːniə/) is the tendency to perceive meaningful connections between unrelated things. The term (German: Apophänie from the Greek verb ἀποφαίνειν (apophaínein)) was coined by psychiatr

Sunspots (economics)

In economics, the term sunspots (or sometimes "a sunspot") refers to an extrinsic random variable, that is, a random variable that does not affect economic fundamentals (such as endowments, preference

Algorithmically random sequence

Intuitively, an algorithmically random sequence (or random sequence) is a sequence of binary digits that appears random to any algorithm running on a (prefix-free or not) universal Turing machine. The

Incompatibilism

Incompatibilism is the view that a deterministic universe is completely at odds with the notion that persons have free will, the latter being defined as the capacity of conscious agents to choose a fu

Differential effects

Differential effects play a special role in certain observational studies in which treatments are not assigned to subjects at random, where differing outcomes may reflect biased assignments rather tha

Deterministic noise

In (supervised) machine learning, specifically when learning from data, there are situations when the data values cannot be modeled. This may arise if there are random fluctuations or measurement erro

Complex random vector

In probability theory and statistics, a complex random vector is typically a tuple of complex-valued random variables, and generally is a random variable taking values in a vector space over the field

International Random Film Festival

The International Random Film Festival is the first film festival in the world which celebrates randomness in cinema. Out of the submission 25 films are selected to compete each year. The festival is

Random stimulus

A random stimulus is any class of creativity techniques that explores randomization. Most of their names start with the word "random", such as random word, random heuristic, random picture and random

Odds

Odds provide a measure of the likelihood of a particular outcome. They are calculated as the ratio of the number of events that produce that outcome to the number that do not. Odds are commonly used i

Indeterminacy (philosophy)

Indeterminacy, in philosophy, can refer both to common scientific and mathematical concepts of uncertainty and their implications and to another kind of indeterminacy deriving from the nature of defin

Indeterminism

Indeterminism is the idea that events (or certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or do not cause deterministically. It is the opposite of determinism and related to chance. It is

Complex random variable

In probability theory and statistics, complex random variables are a generalization of real-valued random variables to complex numbers, i.e. the possible values a complex random variable may take are

Casualism (philosophy)

Casualism is the philosophical view that the universe, its creation and development, is solely based on randomness. The concept can be traced back to Epicurus (341 BC – 270 BC), however most of the or

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