# Category: Spatial analysis

Statistical shape analysis
Statistical shape analysis is an analysis of the geometrical properties of some given set of shapes by statistical methods. For instance, it could be used to quantify differences between male and fema
Spatial descriptive statistics
Spatial descriptive statistics is the intersection of spatial statistics and descriptive statistics; these methods are used for a variety of purposes in geography, particularly in quantitative data an
Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization
Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) is an ambient pressure ionization technique used in mass spectrometry (MS) for chemical analysis of organic molecules. In this technique, analy
Activity space
In social science, the activity space designates the "set of places individuals encounter as a result of their routine activities in everyday life." The activity space can include all relevant locatio
Geographical cluster
A geographical cluster is a localized anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that
Local convex hull
Local convex hull (LoCoH) is a method for estimating size of the home range of an animal or a group of animals (e.g. a pack of wolves, a pride of lions, or herd of buffaloes), and for constructing a u
Spatial ecology
Spatial ecology studies the ultimate distributional or spatial unit occupied by a species. In a particular habitat shared by several species, each of the species is usually confined to its own microha
Mobility triangles
In criminology, Mobility triangles are the triangular areas formed by the locations of the victim's home, the offender's home and the crime. They are used to describe spatial patterns of crimes, and t
Spatial Mathematics: Theory and Practice through Mapping
Spatial Mathematics: Theory and Practice through Mapping is a book on the mathematics that underlies geographic information systems and spatial analysis. It was written by Sandra Arlinghaus and Joseph
Spatial distribution
A spatial distribution in statistics is the arrangement of a phenomenon across the Earth's surface and a graphical display of such an arrangement is an important tool in geographical and environmental
Barnes interpolation
Barnes interpolation, named after Stanley L. Barnes, is the interpolation of unevenly spread data points from a set of measurements of an unknown function in two dimensions into an analytic function o
Factorial moment measure
In probability and statistics, a factorial moment measure is a mathematical quantity, function or, more precisely, measure that is defined in relation to mathematical objects known as point processes,
Wombling
In statistics, Wombling is any of a number of techniques used for identifying zones of rapid change, typically in some quantity as it varies across some geographical or Euclidean space. It is named fo
Spatial analysis
Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which studies entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. Spatial analysis includes a variety of
Spatial data infrastructure
A Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), also called geospatial data infrastructure, is a data infrastructure implementing a framework of geographic data, metadata, users and tools that are interactively
EPSG Geodetic Parameter Dataset
EPSG Geodetic Parameter Dataset (also EPSG registry) is a public registry of geodetic datums, spatial reference systems, Earth ellipsoids, coordinate transformations and related units of measurement.
Nearest neighbour distribution
In probability and statistics, a nearest neighbor function, nearest neighbor distance distribution, nearest-neighbor distribution function or nearest neighbor distribution is a mathematical function t
Overdispersion
In statistics, overdispersion is the presence of greater variability (statistical dispersion) in a data set than would be expected based on a given statistical model. A common task in applied statisti
Alignments of random points
Alignments of random points in a plane can be demonstrated by statistics to be counter-intuitively easy to find when a large number of random points are marked on a bounded flat surface. This has been
Map algebra
Map algebra is an algebra for manipulating geographic data, primarily fields. Developed by Dr. Dana Tomlin and others in the late 1970s, it is a set of primitive operations in a geographic information
Geometric data analysis
Geometric data analysis comprises geometric aspects of image analysis, pattern analysis and shape analysis and the approach of multivariate statistics that treats arbitrary data sets as clouds of poin
Correlation function
A correlation function is a function that gives the statistical correlation between random variables, contingent on the spatial or temporal distance between those variables. If one considers the corre
Facility location problem
The study of facility location problems (FLP), also known as location analysis, is a branch of operations research and computational geometry concerned with the optimal placement of facilities to mini
Multiscale geometric analysis
Multiscale geometric analysis or geometric multiscale analysis is an emerging area of high-dimensional signal processing and data analysis.
Boundary problem (spatial analysis)
A boundary problem in analysis is a phenomenon in which geographical patterns are differentiated by the shape and arrangement of boundaries that are drawn for administrative or measurement purposes. T
Spatial embedding
Spatial embedding is one of feature learning techniques used in spatial analysis where points, lines, polygons or other spatial data types. representing geographic locations are mapped to vectors of r
Modifiable areal unit problem
The modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) is a source of statistical bias that can significantly impact the results of statistical hypothesis tests. MAUP affects results when point-based measures of sp
Rossmo's formula
Rossmo's formula is a geographic profiling formula to predict where a serial criminal lives. It relies upon the tendency of criminals to not commit crimes near places where they might be recognized, b
In statistics, the rational quadratic covariance function is used in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning, image analysis, and other fields where multivariate statistical analysis is co
Spatial heterogeneity
Spatial heterogeneity is a property generally ascribed to a landscape or to a population. It refers to the uneven distribution of various concentrations of each species within an area. A landscape wit
Covariance function
In probability theory and statistics, the covariance function describes how much two random variables change together (their covariance) with varying spatial or temporal separation. For a random field
Point pattern analysis
Point pattern analysis (PPA) is the study of the spatial arrangements of points in (usually 2-dimensional) space. The simplest formulation is a set X = {x ∈ D} where D, which can be called the 'study
Buffer analysis
In geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis, buffer analysis is the determination of a zone around a geographic feature containing locations that are within a specified distance of th
Geospatial topology
Geospatial topology is the study and application of qualitative spatial relationships between geographic features, or between representations of such features in geographic information, such as in geo
Geospatial predictive modeling
Geospatial predictive modeling is conceptually rooted in the principle that the occurrences ofevents being modeled are limited in distribution. Occurrences of events are neither uniformnor random in d
Indicators of spatial association
Indicators of spatial association are statistics that evaluate the existence of clusters in the spatial arrangement of a given variable. For instance, if we are studying cancer rates among census trac
Proximity analysis
Proximity analysis is a class of spatial analysis tools and algorithms that employ geographic distance as a central principle. Proximity analysis is a crucial tool for business marketing and site sele
GIS and public health
Geographic information systems (GISs) and geographic information science (GIScience) combine computer-mapping capabilities with additional database management and data analysis tools. Commercial GIS s
Cross-correlation matrix
The cross-correlation matrix of two random vectors is a matrix containing as elements the cross-correlations of all pairs of elements of the random vectors. The cross-correlation matrix is used in var
Spatial variability
Spatial variability occurs when a quantity that is measured at different spatial locations exhibits values that differ across the locations. Spatial variability can be assessed using spatial descripti
Moran's I
In statistics, Moran's I is a measure of spatial autocorrelation developed by Patrick Alfred Pierce Moran. Spatial autocorrelation is characterized by a correlation in a signal among nearby locations
One Scotland Gazetteer
The One Scotland Gazetteer is the definitive national land, property and address dataset for Scotland that is published by Spatial Information Service within the Improvement Service. It is compiled us
Primary care service area
Primary Care Service Areas are geographic areas that are self-sufficient markets of primary care. These areas are designed in a manner such that the majority of patients living in these areas use prim
Huff model
In spatial analysis, the Huff model is a widely used tool for predicting the probability of a consumer visiting a site, as a function of the distance of the site, its attractiveness, and the relative
Cuzick–Edwards test
In statistics, the Cuzick–Edwards test is a significance test whose aim is to detect the possible clustering of sub-populations within a clustered or non-uniformly-spread overall population. Possible
Two-step floating catchment area method
The two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method is a method for combining a number of related types of information into a single, immediately meaningful, index that allows comparisons to be made a
Moment measure
In probability and statistics, a moment measure is a mathematical quantity, function or, more precisely, measure that is defined in relation to mathematical objects known as point processes, which are
UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis
The Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA) is a research centre at University College London (UCL), which specialises in the application and visualisation of spatial analytic techniques and simul
Matérn covariance function
In statistics, the Matérn covariance, also called the Matérn kernel, is a covariance function used in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning, image analysis, and other applications of mul
Ranklet
In statistics, a ranklet is an orientation-selective non-parametric feature which is based on the computation of Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon (MWW) rank-sum test statistics. Ranklets achieve similar response
Spatial econometrics
Spatial econometrics is the field where spatial analysis and econometrics intersect. The term “spatial econometrics” was introduced for the first time by the Belgian economist Jean Paelinck (universal
Cost distance analysis
In spatial analysis and geographic information systems, cost distance analysis or cost path analysis is a method for determining one or more optimal routes of travel through unconstrained (two-dimensi
Spherical contact distribution function
In probability and statistics, a spherical contact distribution function, first contact distribution function, or empty space function is a mathematical function that is defined in relation to mathema
CrimeStat
CrimeStat is a crime mapping software program. CrimeStat is Windows-based program that conducts spatial and statistical analysis and is designed to interface with a geographic information system (GIS)
Orbital Insight
Orbital Insight is a Palo Alto, California-based geospatial analytics company. The company analyzes satellite, drone, balloon and other unmanned aerial vehicle images, including cell phone geolocation
Statistical geography
Statistical geography is the study and practice of collecting, analysing and presenting data that has a geographic or areal dimension, such as census or demographics data. It uses techniques from spat
Empirical orthogonal functions
In statistics and signal processing, the method of empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is a decomposition of a signal or data set in terms of orthogonal basis functions which are determined f
Greenwood statistic
The Greenwood statistic is a spacing statistic and can be used to evaluate clustering of events in time or locations in space.
Geary's C
Geary's C is a measure of spatial autocorrelation or an attempt to determine if adjacent observations of the same phenomenon are correlated. Spatial autocorrelation is more complex than autocorrelatio
Complete spatial randomness
Complete spatial randomness (CSR) describes a point process whereby point events occur within a given study area in a completely random fashion. It is synonymous with a homogeneous spatial Poisson pro