# Category: Statistical data types

Bivariate data
In statistics, bivariate data is data on each of two variables, where each value of one of the variables is paired with a value of the other variable. Typically it would be of interest to investigate
Statistical shape analysis
Statistical shape analysis is an analysis of the geometrical properties of some given set of shapes by statistical methods. For instance, it could be used to quantify differences between male and fema
Aggregate data
Aggregate data is high-level data which is acquired by combining individual-level data. For instance, the output of an industry is an aggregate of the firms’ individual outputs within that industry. A
Censoring (statistics)
In statistics, censoring is a condition in which the value of a measurement or observation is only partially known. For example, suppose a study is conducted to measure the impact of a drug on mortali
Binary variable
No description available.
Ordinal data
Ordinal data is a categorical, statistical data type where the variables have natural, ordered categories and the distances between the categories are not known. These data exist on an ordinal scale,
Panel data
In statistics and econometrics, panel data and longitudinal data are both multi-dimensional data involving measurements over time. Panel data is a subset of longitudinal data where observations are fo
Level of measurement
Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables. Psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens developed the best-kno
Stochastic process
In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic (/stoʊˈkæstɪk/) or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a family of random variables. Stochastic processes are widely used
Functional data analysis
Functional data analysis (FDA) is a branch of statistics that analyses data providing information about curves, surfaces or anything else varying over a continuum. In its most general form, under an F
Inter-rater reliability
In statistics, inter-rater reliability (also called by various similar names, such as inter-rater agreement, inter-rater concordance, inter-observer reliability, inter-coder reliability, and so on) is
Nominal category
A nominal category or a nominal group is a group of objects or ideas that can be collectively grouped on the basis of a particular characteristic—a qualitative property. A variable that codes whether
Variable and attribute (research)
In science and research, an attribute is a quality of an object (person, thing, etc.). Attributes are closely related to variables. A variable is a logical set of attributes. Variables can "vary" – fo
Observational study
In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the contro
Missing data
In statistics, missing data, or missing values, occur when no data value is stored for the variable in an observation. Missing data are a common occurrence and can have a significant effect on the con
Count data
In statistics, count data is a statistical data type describing countable quantities, data which can take only the counting numbers, non-negative integer values {0, 1, 2, 3, ...}, and where these inte
Cross-sectional data
Cross-sectional data, or a cross section of a study population, in statistics and econometrics, is a type of data collected by observing many subjects (such as individuals, firms, countries, or region
Inherent zero
In statistics, an inherent zero is a reference point used to describe data sets which are indicative of magnitude of an absolute or relative nature. Inherent zeros are used in the "ratio level" of "le
Historiometry
Historiometry is the historical study of human progress or individual personal characteristics, using statistics to analyze references to geniuses, their statements, behavior and discoveries in relati
Data point
No description available.
Binary random variable
No description available.
Unit of observation
In statistics, a unit of observation is the unit described by the data that one analyzes. A study may treat groups as a unit of observation with a country as the unit of analysis, drawing conclusions
Binary data
Binary data is data whose unit can take on only two possible states. These are often labelled as 0 and 1 in accordance with the binary numeral system and Boolean algebra. Binary data occurs in many di
Categorical variable
In statistics, a categorical variable (also called qualitative variable) is a variable that can take on one of a limited, and usually fixed, number of possible values, assigning each individual or oth
Surrogate data
Surrogate data, sometimes known as analogous data, usually refers to time series data that is produced using well-defined (linear) models like ARMA processes that reproduce various statistical propert
Point process
In statistics and probability theory, a point process or point field is a collection of mathematical points randomly located on a mathematical space such as the real line or Euclidean space.Point proc
Life table
In actuarial science and demography, a life table (also called a mortality table or actuarial table) is a table which shows, for each age, what the probability is that a person of that age will die be
Directional statistics
Directional statistics (also circular statistics or spherical statistics) is the subdiscipline of statistics that deals with directions (unit vectors in Euclidean space, Rn), axes (lines through the o
Realization (probability)
In probability and statistics, a realization, observation, or observed value, of a random variable is the value that is actually observed (what actually happened). The random variable itself is the pr
Statistical data type
In statistics, groups of individual data points may be classified as belonging to any of various statistical data types, e.g. categorical ("red", "blue", "green"), real number (1.68, -5, 1.7e+6), odd
Observable variable
No description available.
Binary data (statistics)
No description available.
Longitudinal study
A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., us
Time series
In mathematics, a time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order. Most commonly, a time series is a sequence taken at successive equally spaced points in time. Thu
Multidimensional panel data
In econometrics, a multidimensional panel data is data of a phenomenon observed over three or more dimensions. This comes in contrast with panel data, observed over two dimensions (typically, time and
Synthetic data
Synthetic data is information that's artificially generated rather than produced by real-world events. Typically created using algorithms, synthetic data can be deployed to validate mathematical model
Truncation (statistics)
In statistics, truncation results in values that are limited above or below, resulting in a truncated sample. A random variable is said to be truncated from below if, for some threshold value , the ex
Compositional data
In statistics, compositional data are quantitative descriptions of the parts of some whole, conveying relative information. Mathematically, compositional data is represented by points on a simplex. Me
Mark and recapture
Mark and recapture is a method commonly used in ecology to estimate an animal population's size where it is impractical to count every individual. A portion of the population is captured, marked, and
Quantitative psychological research
Quantitative psychological research is psychological research that employs quantitative research methods. Quantitative research falls under the category of empirical research.
Mean-field particle methods
Mean-field particle methods are a broad class of interacting type Monte Carlo algorithms for simulating from a sequence of probability distributions satisfying a nonlinear evolution equation. These fl
Wide and narrow data
Wide and narrow (sometimes un-stacked and stacked, or wide and tall) are terms used to describe two different presentations for tabular data.