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Functional renormalization group

In theoretical physics, functional renormalization group (FRG) is an implementation of the renormalization group (RG) concept which is used in quantum and statistical field theory, especially when dea

Knaster–Tarski theorem

In the mathematical areas of order and lattice theory, the Knaster–Tarski theorem, named after Bronisław Knaster and Alfred Tarski, states the following: Let (L, ≤) be a complete lattice and let f : L

Lotka–Volterra equations

The Lotka–Volterra equations, also known as the predator–prey equations, are a pair of first-order nonlinear differential equations, frequently used to describe the dynamics of biological systems in w

Least fixed point

In order theory, a branch of mathematics, the least fixed point (lfp or LFP, sometimes also smallest fixed point) of a function from a partially ordered set to itself is the fixed point which is less

Domain theory

Domain theory is a branch of mathematics that studies special kinds of partially ordered sets (posets) commonly called domains. Consequently, domain theory can be considered as a branch of order theor

Fixed point (mathematics)

A fixed point (sometimes shortened to fixpoint, also known as an invariant point) is a value that does not change under a given transformation. Specifically, in mathematics, a fixed point of a functio

Cycles and fixed points

In mathematics, the cycles of a permutation π of a finite set S correspond bijectively to the orbits of the subgroup generated by π acting on S. These orbits are subsets of S that can be written as {

Dottie number

In mathematics, the Dottie number is a constant that is the unique real root of the equation , where the argument of is in radians. The decimal expansion of the Dottie number is . Since is decreasing

Autonomous convergence theorem

In mathematics, an autonomous convergence theorem is one of a family of related theorems which specify conditions guaranteeing global asymptotic stability of a continuous autonomous dynamical system.

Minimax

Minimax (sometimes MinMax, MM or saddle point) is a decision rule used in artificial intelligence, decision theory, game theory, statistics, and philosophy for minimizing the possible loss for a worst

Ultraviolet fixed point

In a quantum field theory, one may calculate an effective or running coupling constant that defines the coupling of the theory measured at a given momentum scale. One example of such a coupling consta

Conley–Zehnder theorem

In mathematics, the Conley–Zehnder theorem, named after Charles C. Conley and Eduard Zehnder, provides a lower bound for the number of fixed points of Hamiltonian diffeomorphisms of standard symplecti

Thue–Morse sequence

In mathematics, the Thue–Morse sequence, or Prouhet–Thue–Morse sequence, is the binary sequence (an infinite sequence of 0s and 1s) obtained by starting with 0 and successively appending the Boolean c

Knaster–Kuratowski–Mazurkiewicz lemma

The Knaster–Kuratowski–Mazurkiewicz lemma is a basic result in mathematical fixed-point theory published in 1929 by Knaster, Kuratowski and Mazurkiewicz. The KKM lemma can be proved from Sperner's lem

Infrared fixed point

In physics, an infrared fixed point is a set of coupling constants, or other parameters, that evolve from initial values at very high energies (short distance) to fixed stable values, usually predicta

Rotation number

In mathematics, the rotation number is an invariant of homeomorphisms of the circle.

Sperner's lemma

In mathematics, Sperner's lemma is a combinatorial result on colorings of triangulations, analogous to the Brouwer fixed point theorem, which is equivalent to it. It states that every Sperner coloring

Conley index theory

In dynamical systems theory, Conley index theory, named after Charles Conley, analyzes topological structure of invariant sets of diffeomorphisms and of smooth flows. It is a far-reaching generalizati

Artin–Mazur zeta function

In mathematics, the Artin–Mazur zeta function, named after Michael Artin and Barry Mazur, is a function that is used for studying the iterated functions that occur in dynamical systems and fractals. I

Nielsen theory

Nielsen theory is a branch of mathematical research with its origins in topological . Its central ideas were developed by Danish mathematician Jakob Nielsen, and bear his name. The theory developed in

Fixed-point property

A mathematical object X has the fixed-point property if every suitably well-behaved mapping from X to itself has a fixed point. The term is most commonly used to describe topological spaces on which e

Coincidence point

In mathematics, a coincidence point (or simply coincidence) of two functions is a point in their common domain having the same image. Formally, given two functions we say that a point x in X is a coin

Weil conjectures

In mathematics, the Weil conjectures were highly influential proposals by André Weil. They led to a successful multi-decade program to prove them, in which many leading researchers developed the frame

Fixed-point index

In mathematics, the fixed-point index is a concept in topological fixed-point theory, and in particular Nielsen theory. The fixed-point index can be thought of as a multiplicity measurement for fixed

Price of stability

In game theory, the price of stability (PoS) of a game is the ratio between the best objective function value of one of its equilibria and that of an optimal outcome. The PoS is relevant for games in

Ky Fan lemma

In mathematics, Ky Fan's lemma (KFL) is a combinatorial lemma about labellings of triangulations. It is a generalization of Tucker's lemma. It was proved by Ky Fan in 1952.

Local zeta function

In number theory, the local zeta function Z(V, s) (sometimes called the congruent zeta function or the Hasse–Weil zeta function) is defined as where V is a non-singular n-dimensional projective algebr

Iterated function

In mathematics, an iterated function is a function X → X (that is, a function from some set X to itself) which is obtained by composing another function f : X → X with itself a certain number of times

Markus–Yamabe conjecture

In mathematics, the Markus–Yamabe conjecture is a conjecture on global asymptotic stability. If the Jacobian matrix of a dynamical system at a fixed point is Hurwitz, then the fixed point is asymptoti

Hairy ball theorem

The hairy ball theorem of algebraic topology (sometimes called the hedgehog theorem in Europe) states that there is no nonvanishing continuous tangent vector field on even-dimensional n-spheres. For t

Applied general equilibrium

In mathematical economics, applied general equilibrium (AGE) models were pioneered by Herbert Scarf at Yale University in 1967, in two papers, and a follow-up book with Terje Hansen in 1973, with the

Sullivan conjecture

In mathematics, Sullivan conjecture or Sullivan's conjecture on maps from classifying spaces can refer to any of several results and conjectures prompted by homotopy theory work of Dennis Sullivan. A

Banks–Zaks fixed point

In quantum chromodynamics (and also N = 1 super quantum chromodynamics) with massless flavors, if the number of flavors, Nf, is sufficiently small (i.e. small enough to guarantee asymptotic freedom, d

Cycle detection

In computer science, cycle detection or cycle finding is the algorithmic problem of finding a cycle in a sequence of iterated function values. For any function f that maps a finite set S to itself, an

Nash equilibrium

In game theory, the Nash equilibrium, named after the mathematician John Nash, is the most common way to define the solution of a non-cooperative game involving two or more players. In a Nash equilibr

Rencontres numbers

In combinatorial mathematics, the rencontres numbers are a triangular array of integers that enumerate permutations of the set { 1, ..., n } with specified numbers of fixed points: in other words, par

Fixed-point combinator

In mathematics and computer science in general, a fixed point of a function is a value that is mapped to itself by the function. In combinatory logic for computer science, a fixed-point combinator (or

Common knowledge (logic)

Common knowledge is a special kind of knowledge for a group of agents. There is common knowledge of p in a group of agents G when all the agents in G know p, they all know that they know p, they all k

Contraction mapping

In mathematics, a contraction mapping, or contraction or contractor, on a metric space (M, d) is a function f from M to itself, with the property that there is some real number such that for all x and

Fixed points of isometry groups in Euclidean space

A fixed point of an isometry group is a point that is a fixed point for every isometry in the group. For any isometry group in Euclidean space the set of fixed points is either empty or an affine spac

Asymptotic safety in quantum gravity

Asymptotic safety (sometimes also referred to as nonperturbative renormalizability) is a concept in quantum field theory which aims at finding a consistent and predictive quantum theory of the gravita

Derangement

In combinatorial mathematics, a derangement is a permutation of the elements of a set, such that no element appears in its original position. In other words, a derangement is a permutation that has no

Lefschetz zeta function

In mathematics, the Lefschetz zeta-function is a tool used in topological periodic and fixed point theory, and dynamical systems. Given a continuous map , the zeta-function is defined as the formal se

Physics applications of asymptotically safe gravity

The asymptotic safety approach to quantum gravity provides a nonperturbative notion of renormalization in order to find a consistent and predictive quantum field theory of the gravitational interactio

Fixed-point space

In mathematics, a Hausdorff space X is called a fixed-point space if every continuous function has a fixed point. For example, any closed interval [a,b] in is a fixed point space, and it can be proved

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