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- Computational problems

Promise problem

In computational complexity theory, a promise problem is a generalization of a decision problem where the input is promised to belong to a particular subset of all possible inputs. Unlike decision pro

Counting problem (complexity)

In computational complexity theory and computability theory, a counting problem is a type of computational problem. If R is a search problem then is the corresponding and denotes the corresponding dec

N-body problem

In physics, the n-body problem is the problem of predicting the individual motions of a group of celestial objects interacting with each other gravitationally. Solving this problem has been motivated

Dutch national flag problem

The Dutch national flag problem is a computational problem proposed by Edsger Dijkstra. The flag of the Netherlands consists of three colors: red, white, and blue. Given balls of these three colors ar

Decision problem

In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a decision problem is a computational problem that can be posed as a yes–no question of the input values. An example of a decision problem

AI-complete

In the field of artificial intelligence, the most difficult problems are informally known as AI-complete or AI-hard, implying that the difficulty of these computational problems, assuming intelligence

Function problem

In computational complexity theory, a function problem is a computational problem where a single output (of a total function) is expected for every input, but the output is more complex than that of a

Josephus problem

In computer science and mathematics, the Josephus problem (or Josephus permutation) is a theoretical problem related to a certain counting-out game. A number of people are standing in a circle waiting

Word problem (mathematics)

In computational mathematics, a word problem is the problem of deciding whether two given expressions are equivalent with respect to a set of rewriting identities. A prototypical example is the word p

Circuit Value Problem

The Circuit Value Problem (or Circuit Evaluation Problem) is the computational problem of computing the output of a given Boolean circuit on a given input. The problem is complete for P under uniform

Tutte polynomial

The Tutte polynomial, also called the dichromate or the Tutte–Whitney polynomial, is a graph polynomial. It is a polynomial in two variables which plays an important role in graph theory. It is define

Computational problem

In theoretical computer science, a computational problem is a problem that may be solved by an algorithm. For example, the problem of factoring "Given a positive integer n, find a nontrivial prime fac

Circuit satisfiability problem

In theoretical computer science, the circuit satisfiability problem (also known as CIRCUIT-SAT, CircuitSAT, CSAT, etc.) is the decision problem of determining whether a given Boolean circuit has an as

Sharp-SAT

In computer science, the Sharp Satisfiability Problem (sometimes called Sharp-SAT or #SAT) is the problem of counting the number of interpretations that satisfies a given Boolean formula, introduced b

Computing the permanent

In linear algebra, the computation of the permanent of a matrix is a problem that is thought to be more difficult than the computation of the determinant of a matrix despite the apparent similarity of

Dining philosophers problem

In computer science, the dining philosophers problem is an example problem often used in concurrent algorithm design to illustrate synchronization issues and techniques for resolving them. It was orig

Predecessor problem

In computer science, the predecessor problem involves maintaining a set of items to, given an element, efficiently query which element precedes or succeeds that element in an order. Data structures us

Linear search problem

In computational complexity theory, the linear search problem is an optimal search problem introduced by Richard E. Bellman and independently considered by Anatole Beck.

Maximum inner-product search

Maximum inner-product search (MIPS) is a search problem, with a corresponding class of search algorithms which attempt to maximise the inner product between a query and the data items to be retrieved.

Sum of radicals

In computational complexity theory, there is an open problem of whether some information about a sum of radicals may be computed in polynomial time depending on the input size, i.e., in the number of

Gap reduction

In computational complexity theory, a gap reduction is a reduction to a particular type of decision problem, known as a c-gap problem. Such reductions provide information about the hardness of approxi

Unknotting problem

In mathematics, the unknotting problem is the problem of algorithmically recognizing the unknot, given some representation of a knot, e.g., a knot diagram. There are several types of unknotting algori

Search problem

In computational complexity theory and computability theory, a search problem is a type of computational problem represented by a binary relation. If R is a binary relation such that field(R) ⊆ Γ+ and

Short integer solution problem

Short integer solution (SIS) and ring-SIS problems are two average-case problems that are used in lattice-based cryptography constructions. Lattice-based cryptography began in 1996 from a seminal work

List of PPAD-complete problems

This is a list of PPAD-complete problems.

Optimization problem

In mathematics, computer science and economics, an optimization problem is the problem of finding the best solution from all feasible solutions. Optimization problems can be divided into two categorie

Ring learning with errors

In post-quantum cryptography, ring learning with errors (RLWE) is a computational problem which serves as the foundation of new cryptographic algorithms, such as NewHope, designed to protect against c

♯P-completeness of 01-permanent

The #P-completeness of 01-permanent, sometimes known as Valiant's theorem, is a mathematical proof about the permanent of matrices, considered a seminal result in computational complexity theory. In a

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