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Euler angles

The Euler angles are three angles introduced by Leonhard Euler to describe the orientation of a rigid body with respect to a fixed coordinate system. They can also represent the orientation of a mobil

Spherical conic

In mathematics, a spherical conic or sphero-conic is a curve on the sphere, the intersection of the sphere with a concentric elliptic cone. It is the spherical analog of a conic section (ellipse, para

Curl (mathematics)

In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal circulation of a vector field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. The curl at a point in the field is represented b

3-sphere

In mathematics, a 3-sphere is a higher-dimensional analogue of a sphere. It may be embedded in 4-dimensional Euclidean space as the set of points equidistant from a fixed central point. Analogous to h

Moishezon manifold

In mathematics, a Moishezon manifold M is a compact complex manifold such that the field of meromorphic functions on each component M has transcendence degree equal the complex dimension of the compon

Condensed mathematics

Condensed mathematics is a theory developed by and Peter Scholze which aims to unify various mathematical subfields, including topology, complex geometry, and algebraic geometry.

Helmholtz decomposition

In physics and mathematics, in the area of vector calculus, Helmholtz's theorem, also known as the fundamental theorem of vector calculus, states that any sufficiently smooth, rapidly decaying vector

Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system that uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean

Lattice (group)

In geometry and group theory, a lattice in the real coordinate space is an infinite set of points in this space with the properties that coordinate wise addition or subtraction of two points in the la

Cramer's theorem (algebraic curves)

In algebraic geometry, Cramer's theorem on algebraic curves gives the necessary and sufficient number of points in the real plane falling on an algebraic curve to uniquely determine the curve in non-d

Real coordinate space

In mathematics, the real coordinate space of dimension n, denoted Rn (/ɑːrˈɛn/ ar-EN) or , is the set of the n-tuples of real numbers, that is the set of all sequences of n real numbers. With componen

Inflection point

In differential calculus and differential geometry, an inflection point, point of inflection, flex, or inflection (British English: inflexion) is a point on a smooth plane curve at which the curvature

Circular section

In geometry, a circular section is a circle on a quadric surface (such as an ellipsoid or hyperboloid). It is a special plane section of the quadric, as this circle is the intersection with the quadri

Tangential angle

In geometry, the tangential angle of a curve in the Cartesian plane, at a specific point, is the angle between the tangent line to the curve at the given point and the x-axis. (Some authors define the

Orientation of a vector bundle

In mathematics, an orientation of a real vector bundle is a generalization of an orientation of a vector space; thus, given a real vector bundle π: E →B, an orientation of E means: for each fiber Ex,

Circular algebraic curve

In geometry, a circular algebraic curve is a type of plane algebraic curve determined by an equation F(x, y) = 0, where F is a polynomial with real coefficients and the highest-order terms of F form a

Translation surface (differential geometry)

In differential geometry a translation surface is a surface that is generated by translations:
* For two space curves with a common point , the curve is shifted such that point is moving on . By this

Line coordinates

In geometry, line coordinates are used to specify the position of a line just as point coordinates (or simply coordinates) are used to specify the position of a point.

Isoperimetric ratio

In analytic geometry, the isoperimetric ratio of a simple closed curve in the Euclidean plane is the ratio L2/A, where L is the length of the curve and A is its area. It is a dimensionless quantity th

Dot product

In mathematics, the dot product or scalar product is an algebraic operation that takes two equal-length sequences of numbers (usually coordinate vectors), and returns a single number. In Euclidean geo

Cross Gramian

In control theory, the cross Gramian is a Gramian matrix used to determine how controllable and observable a linear system is. For the stable time-invariant linear system the cross Gramian is defined

Isoperimetric inequality

In mathematics, the isoperimetric inequality is a geometric inequality involving the perimeter of a set and its volume. In -dimensional space the inequality lower bounds the surface area or perimeter

Angles between flats

The concept of angles between lines in the plane and between pairs of two lines, two planes or a line and a plane in space can be generalized to arbitrary dimension. This generalization was first disc

Orientation (vector space)

The orientation of a real vector space or simply orientation of a vector space is the arbitrary choice of which ordered bases are "positively" oriented and which are "negatively" oriented. In the thre

Line (geometry)

In geometry, a line is an infinitely long object with no width, depth, or curvature. Thus, lines are one-dimensional objects, though they may exist in two, three, or higher dimension spaces. The word

Three-dimensional space

Three-dimensional space (also: 3D space, 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an elemen

Section formula

In coordinate geometry, Section formula is used to find the ratio in which a line segment is divided by a point internally or externally. It is used to find out the centroid, incenter and excenters of

Descartes' theorem

In geometry, Descartes' theorem states that for every four kissing, or mutually tangent, circles, the radii of the circles satisfy a certain quadratic equation. By solving this equation, one can const

Unit circle

In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle of unit radius—that is, a radius of 1. Frequently, especially in trigonometry, the unit circle is the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin (0, 0) in the

Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system (UK: /kɑːˈtiːzjən/, US: /kɑːrˈtiʒən/) in a plane is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distan

Radiodrome

In geometry, a radiodrome is the pursuit curve followed by a point that is pursuing another linearly-moving point. The term is derived from the Greek words ῥᾴδιος, rhā́idios, 'easier' and δρόμος, dróm

Vector area

In 3-dimensional geometry and vector calculus, an area vector is a vector combining an area quantity with a direction, thus representing an oriented area in three dimensions. Every bounded surface in

Hesse normal form

The Hesse normal form named after Otto Hesse, is an equation used in analytic geometry, and describes a line in or a plane in Euclidean space or a hyperplane in higher dimensions. It is primarily used

Catenary

In physics and geometry, a catenary (US: /ˈkætənɛri/, UK: /kəˈtiːnəri/) is the curve that an idealized hanging chain or cable assumes under its own weight when supported only at its ends in a uniform

Asymptote

In analytic geometry, an asymptote (/ˈæsɪmptoʊt/) of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the x or y coordinates tends to infinity.

Minkowski content

The Minkowski content (named after Hermann Minkowski), or the boundary measure, of a set is a basic concept that uses concepts from geometry and measure theory to generalize the notions of length of a

Radical axis

In geometry, the radical axis of two non-concentric circles is the set of points whose power with respect to the circles are equal. For this reason the radical axis is also called the power line or po

Saddle point

In mathematics, a saddle point or minimax point is a point on the surface of the graph of a function where the slopes (derivatives) in orthogonal directions are all zero (a critical point), but which

Cross product

In mathematics, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product, to emphasize its geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in a three-dimensional oriented E

Envelope (mathematics)

In geometry, an envelope of a planar family of curves is a curve that is tangent to each member of the family at some point, and these points of tangency together form the whole envelope. Classically,

Pick's theorem

In geometry, Pick's theorem provides a formula for the area of a simple polygon with integer vertex coordinates, in terms of the number of integer points within it and on its boundary. The result was

Ruled surface

In geometry, a surface S is ruled (also called a scroll) if through every point of S there is a straight line that lies on S. Examples include the plane, the lateral surface of a cylinder or cone, a c

Hyperbola

In mathematics, a hyperbola (/haɪˈpɜːrbələ/; pl. hyperbolas or hyperbolae /-liː/; adj. hyperbolic /ˌhaɪpərˈbɒlɪk/) is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by

Eccentricity (mathematics)

In mathematics, the eccentricity of a conic section is a non-negative real number that uniquely characterizes its shape. More formally two conic sections are similar if and only if they have the same

Algebraic geometry and analytic geometry

In mathematics, algebraic geometry and analytic geometry are two closely related subjects. While algebraic geometry studies algebraic varieties, analytic geometry deals with complex manifolds and the

Midpoint

In geometry, the midpoint is the middle point of a line segment. It is equidistant from both endpoints, and it is the centroid both of the segment and of the endpoints. It bisects the segment.

Denjoy–Carleman–Ahlfors theorem

The Denjoy–Carleman–Ahlfors theorem states that the number of asymptotic values attained by a non-constant entire function of order ρ on curves going outwards toward infinite absolute value is less th

Slope

In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line. Slope is often denoted by the letter m; there is no clear answer to the que

Line of greatest slope

In topography, the line of greatest slope is a curve following the steepest slope. In mountain biking and skiing, the line of greatest slope is sometimes called the fall line.

Conic section

In mathematics, a conic section, quadratic curve or conic is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane. The three types of conic section are the hyperbola, the parabol

Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector or simply a vector (sometimes called a geometric vector or spatial vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and directi

Gram matrix

In linear algebra, the Gram matrix (or Gramian matrix, Gramian) of a set of vectors in an inner product space is the Hermitian matrix of inner products, whose entries are given by the inner product .

Power of a point

In elementary plane geometry, the power of a point is a real number that reflects the relative distance of a given point from a given circle. It was introduced by Jakob Steiner in 1826. Specifically,

Sphere–cylinder intersection

In the theory of analytic geometry for real three-dimensional space, the curve formed from the intersection between a sphere and a cylinder can be a circle, a point, the empty set, or a special type o

Surface (topology)

In the part of mathematics referred to as topology, a surface is a two-dimensional manifold. Some surfaces arise as the boundaries of three-dimensional solids; for example, the sphere is the boundary

Analytic geometry

In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system. This contrasts with synthetic geometry. Analyt

Galois geometry

Galois geometry (so named after the 19th-century French mathematician Évariste Galois) is the branch of finite geometry that is concerned with algebraic and analytic geometry over a finite field (or G

Unit hyperbola

In geometry, the unit hyperbola is the set of points (x,y) in the Cartesian plane that satisfy the implicit equation In the study of indefinite orthogonal groups, the unit hyperbola forms the basis fo

Tangent

In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point. Leibniz defined it as the line through a pair of i

Line–sphere intersection

In analytic geometry, a line and a sphere can intersect in three ways: 1.
* No intersection at all 2.
* Intersection in exactly one point 3.
* Intersection in two points. Methods for distinguishing

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