Category: Numeral systems

Glixon code
No description available.
Suzhou numerals
The Suzhou numerals, also known as Sūzhōu mǎzi (蘇州碼子), is a numeral system used in China before the introduction of Arabic numerals. The Suzhou numerals are also known as huāmǎ (花碼), cǎomǎ (草碼), jīngz
Babylonian cuneiform numerals
Assyro-Chaldean Babylonian cuneiform numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a p
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Slashed zero
The slashed zero is a representation of the Arabic digit "0" (zero) with a slash through it. The slashed zero glyph is often used to distinguish the digit "zero" ("0") from the Latin script letter "O"
Exponential-Golomb coding
An exponential-Golomb code (or just Exp-Golomb code) is a type of universal code. To encode any nonnegative integer x using the exp-Golomb code: 1. * Write down x+1 in binary 2. * Count the bits wri
History of ancient numeral systems
Number systems have progressed from the use of fingers and tally marks, perhaps more than 40,000 years ago, to the use of sets of glyphs able to represent any conceivable number efficiently. The earli
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Excess-3, 3-excess or 10-excess-3 binary code (often abbreviated as XS-3, 3XS or X3), shifted binary or Stibitz code (after George Stibitz, who built a relay-based adding machine in 1937) is a self-co
No description available.
Biased representation (arithmetics)
No description available.
In a positional numeral system, the radix or base is the number of unique digits, including the digit zero, used to represent numbers. For example, for the decimal/denary system (the most common syste
Egyptian numerals
The system of ancient Egyptian numerals was used in Ancient Egypt from around 3000 BCE until the early first millennium CE. It was a system of numeration based on multiples of ten, often rounded off t
Varec code
No description available.
O'Brien code II
No description available.
Cyrillic numerals
Cyrillic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the late 10th century. It was used in the First Bulgarian Empire and by South and Ea
Lucal code
No description available.
Numeral system
A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a cons
No description available.
5-3-1-1 code
No description available.
Numerical digit
A numerical digit (often shortened to just digit) is a single symbol used alone (such as "2") or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers in a positional numeral system. The name "digit" c
Sign-value notation
A sign-value notation represents numbers by a series of numeric signs that added together equal the number represented. In Roman numerals for example, X means ten and L means fifty. Hence LXXX means e
Stibitz–Gray code
No description available.
Jump-at-2 code
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Midy's theorem
In mathematics, Midy's theorem, named after French mathematician E. Midy, is a statement about the decimal expansion of fractions a/p where p is a prime and a/p has a repeating decimal expansion with
List of numeral system topics
This is a list of Wikipedia articles on topics of numeral system and "numeric representations" See also: computer numbering formats and number names.
Radix point
No description available.
White code
No description available.
Balanced ternary
Balanced ternary is a ternary numeral system (i.e. base 3 with three digits) that uses a balanced signed-digit representation of the integers in which the digits have the values −1, 0, and 1. This sta
No description available.
Tompkins code II
No description available.
Chuvash numerals
Chuvash numerals is an ancient numeral system from the Old Turkic script the Chuvash people used. (Modern Chuvash use Hindu-Arabic numerals.) Those numerals originate from finger numeration. They look
Stibitz code
No description available.
XS-3 code
No description available.
Giannini code
No description available.
Jump-at-8 code
No description available.
Numeral prefix
Numeral or number prefixes are prefixes derived from numerals or occasionally other numbers. In English and many other languages, they are used to coin numerous series of words. For example: * unicyc
Ones' complement
The ones' complement of a binary number is the value obtained by inverting all the bits in the binary representation of the number (swapping 0s and 1s). The name "ones' complement" (note this is posse
Petherick code
No description available.
MRB (code)
No description available.
Ordinal numerical competence
In human developmental psychology or non-human primate experiments, ordinal numerical competence or ordinal numerical knowledge is the ability to count objects in order and to understand the greater t
Aegean numerals
Aegean numbers was an additive sign-value numeral system used by the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations. They are attested in Linear A and Linear B scripts. They may have survived in the Cypro-Minoan
Genealogical numbering systems
Several genealogical numbering systems have been widely adopted for presenting family trees and pedigree charts in text format. Among the most popular numbering systems are: Ahnentafel (Sosa-Stradonit
Jacques Pelletier du Mans
Jacques Pelletier du Mans, also spelled Peletier (Latin: Iacobus Peletarius Cenomani, 25 July 1517 – 17 July 1582) was a humanist, poet and mathematician of the French Renaissance. Born in Le Mans int
Indian numbering system
The Indian numbering system is used in all South Asian countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan) to express large numbers. The terms lakh or 1,00,000
Gray code
The reflected binary code (RBC), also known as reflected binary (RB) or Gray code after Frank Gray, is an ordering of the binary numeral system such that two successive values differ in only one bit (
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4-2-2-1 code
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Excess-weighted code
No description available.
Prehistoric counting
Counting in prehistory was first assisted by using body parts, primarily the fingers. This is reflected in the etymology of certain number names, such as in the names of ten and hundred in the Proto-I
Table of bases
This table of bases gives the values of 0 to 256 in bases 2 to 36, using A−Z for 10−35. "Base" (or "radix") is a term used in discussions of numeral systems which use place-value notation for represen
Binary prefix
A binary prefix is a unit prefix for multiples of units. It is most often used in data processing, data transmission, and digital information, principally in association with the bit and the byte, to
No description available.
Hoklas code
No description available.
Long hundred
The long hundred, also known as the great hundred or twelfty, is the number 120 (in base-10 Arabic numerals) that was referred to as "hundred" in Germanic languages prior to the 15th century, and is n
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Hindu–Arabic numeral system
The Hindu–Arabic numeral system or Indo-Arabic numeral system (also called the Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system) is a positional decimal numeral system, and is the most common system for
Counter (digital)
In digital logic and computing, a counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock. The most c
2-4-2-1 code
No description available.
8-4-2-1 code
No description available.
History of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system
The Hindu–Arabic numeral system is a decimal place-value numeral system that uses a zero glyph as in "205". Its glyphs are descended from the Indian Brahmi numerals. The full system emerged by the 8th
Names of small numbers
This article lists and discusses the usage and derivation of names of small numbers.
Watts code
No description available.
Alphasyllabic numeral system
Alphasyllabic numeral systems are a type of numeral systems, developed mostly in India starting around 500 AD. Based on various alphasyllabic scripts, in this type of numeral systems glyphs of the num
Unary numeral system
The unary numeral system is the simplest numeral system to represent natural numbers: to represent a number N, a symbol representing 1 is repeated N times. In the unary system, the number 0 (zero) is
Tally marks
Tally marks, also called hash marks, are a unary numeral system (arguably).They are a form of numeral used for counting. They are most useful in counting or tallying ongoing results, such as the score
Bi-quinary coded decimal
Bi-quinary coded decimal is a numeral encoding scheme used in many abacuses and in some early computers, including the Colossus. The term bi-quinary indicates that the code comprises both a two-state
Glagolitic numerals
Glagolitic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Glagolitic script, generally agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saint Cyril. They are similar to Cyrillic numerals, except that
Katapayadi system
Kaṭapayādi system (Devanagari: कटपयादि, also known as Paralppēru, Malayalam: പരല്‍പ്പേര്) of numerical notation is an ancient Indian alphasyllabic numeral system to depict letters to numerals for easy
Datex code
No description available.
Kharoṣṭhī numerals
No description available.
Elias delta coding
Elias δ code or Elias delta code is a universal code encoding the positive integers developed by Peter Elias.
Reflected binary code
No description available.
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Names of large numbers
Two naming scales for large numbers have been used in English and other European languages since the early modern era: the long and short scales. Most English variants use the short scale today, but t
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A chronogram is a sentence or inscription in which specific letters, interpreted as numerals (such as Roman numerals), stand for a particular date when rearranged. The word, meaning "time writing", de
Computer number format
A computer number format is the internal representation of numeric values in digital device hardware and software, such as in programmable computers and calculators. Numerical values are stored as gro
Pace count beads
Pace count beads or ranger beads are a manual counting tool used to keep track of distance traveled through a pace count. It is used in military land navigation or orienteering. A typical example for
WRD (code)
No description available.
O'Brien code I
No description available.
Binary-coded decimal
In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight. Some
Algorism is the technique of performing basic arithmetic by writing numbers in place value form and applying a set of memorized rules and facts to the digits. One who practices algorism is known as an
Elias gamma coding
Elias γ code or Elias gamma code is a universal code encoding positive integers developed by Peter Elias. It is used most commonly when coding integers whose upper-bound cannot be determined beforehan
Offset binary
Offset binary, also referred to as excess-K, excess-N, excess-e, excess code or biased representation, is a method for signed number representation where a signed number n is represented by the bit pa
List of numeral systems
There are many different numeral systems, that is, writing systems for expressing numbers.
Scientific notation
Scientific notation is a way of expressing numbers that are too large or too small (usually would result in a long string of digits) to be conveniently written in decimal form. It may be referred to a
Greek numerals
Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet. In modern Greece, they are still used for ordin
Number sense in animals
Number sense in animals is the ability of creatures to represent and discriminate quantities of relative sizes by number sense. It has been observed in various species, from fish to primates. Animals
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Metric prefix
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or submultiple of the unit. All metric prefixes used today are decadic. Each prefix has a unique symbol th
Mathematics of the Incas
The mathematics of the Incas (or of the Tawantinsuyu) refer to the set of numerical and geometric knowledge and instruments developed and used in the nation of the Incas before the arrival of the Span
Yan tan tethera
Yan Tan Tethera or yan-tan-tethera is a sheep-counting system traditionally used by shepherds in Northern England and some other parts of Britain. The words are numbers taken from Brythonic Celtic lan
Aksharapalli (Akṣarapallī) is a certain type of alphasyllabic numeration scheme extensively used in the pagination of manuscripts produced in India in pre-modern times. The name Aksharapalli can be tr
List of numbers
This is a list of notable numbers and articles about notable numbers. The list does not contain all numbers in existence as most of the number sets are infinite. Numbers may be included in the list ba
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Nicolas Chuquet
Nicolas Chuquet (French: [ʃykɛ]; born c. 1445 – c. 1455; died c. 1488 – c. 1500) was a French mathematician. He invented his own notation for algebraic concepts and exponentiation. He may have been th
Leslie–Russell code
No description available.
RBC (code)
No description available.
Muisca numerals
Muisca numerals were the numeric notation system used by the Muisca, one of the civilizations of the Americas before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca. Just like the Mayas, the Muisca had a vigesimal
5-2-2-1 code
No description available.
Bijective numeration
Bijective numeration is any numeral system in which every non-negative integer can be represented in exactly one way using a finite string of digits. The name refers to the bijection (i.e. one-to-one
Mechanical counter
Mechanical counters are digital counters built using mechanical components. Long before electronics became common, mechanical devices were used to count events. They typically consist of a series of d
Elias omega coding
Elias ω coding or Elias omega coding is a universal code encoding the positive integers developed by Peter Elias. Like Elias gamma coding and Elias delta coding, it works by prefixing the positive int
5-4-2-1 code
No description available.
Maya numerals
The Mayan numeral system was the system to represent numbers and calendar dates in the Maya civilization. It was a vigesimal (base-20) positional numeral system. The numerals are made up of three symb
Pip (counting)
Pips are small but easily countable items, such as the dots on dominoes and dice, or the symbols on a playing card that denote its suit and value.
Tompkins code I
No description available.
Engineering notation
Engineering notation or engineering form is a version of scientific notation in which the exponent of ten must be divisible by three (i.e., they are powers of a thousand, but written as, for example,
No description available.
Cistercian numerals
The medieval Cistercian numerals, or "ciphers" in nineteenth-century parlance, were developed by the Cistercian monastic order in the early thirteenth century at about the time that Arabic numerals we
Counting is the process of determining the number of elements of a finite set of objects, i.e., determining the size of a set. The traditional way of counting consists of continually increasing a (men
Aiken code
The Aiken code (also known as 2421 code) is a complementary binary-coded decimal (BCD) code. A group of four bits is assigned to the decimal digits from 0 to 9 according to the following table. The co
Roman numerals
Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers are written with combination
Long and short scales
The long and short scales are two of several naming systems for integer powers of ten which use some of the same terms for different magnitudes. For whole numbers smaller than 1,000,000,000 (109), suc
Repeating decimal
A repeating decimal or recurring decimal is decimal representation of a number whose digits are periodic (repeating its values at regular intervals) and the infinitely repeated portion is not zero. It
No description available.
Excess-3 Gray code
No description available.
Leading zero
A leading zero is any 0 digit that comes before the first nonzero digit in a number string in positional notation. For example, James Bond's famous identifier, 007, has two leading zeros. Any zeroes a
A tallyman is an individual who keeps a numerical record with tally marks, historically often on tally sticks.
Alphabetic numeral system
An alphabetic numeral system is a type of numeral system. Developed in classical antiquity, it flourished during the early Middle Ages. In alphabetic numeral systems, numbers are written using the cha
Levenshtein coding
Levenstein coding, or Levenshtein coding, is a universal code encoding the non-negative integers developed by Vladimir Levenshtein.
Goodstein's theorem
In mathematical logic, Goodstein's theorem is a statement about the natural numbers, proved by Reuben Goodstein in 1944, which states that every Goodstein sequence eventually terminates at 0. Kirby an
Proto-cuneiform numerals
The Proto-Cuneiform numerals are one of the most complex systems of enumeration in any early writing system. Their decipherment took place over several phases in the 20th century, including major adva