Category: Electron microscopy

Liquid-Phase Electron Microscopy
Liquid-phase electron microscopy (LP EM) refers to a class of methods for imaging specimens in liquid with nanometer spatial resolution using electron microscopy. LP-EM overcomes the key limitation of
Detectors for transmission electron microscopy
There are a variety of technologies available for detecting and recording the images, diffraction patterns, and electron energy loss spectra produced using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Focused ion beam
Focused ion beam, also known as FIB, is a technique used particularly in the semiconductor industry, materials science and increasingly in the biological field for site-specific analysis, deposition,
Auger architectomics
Auger architectomics is a scientific imaging technique that allows biologists, working in the field of nano-technology, to slice open the cells of living organisms to view and assess their internal wo
Transport-of-intensity equation
The transport-of-intensity equation (TIE) is a computational approach to reconstruct the phase of a complex wave in optical and electron microscopy. It describes the internal relationship between the
Scherzer's theorem
Scherzer's theorem is a theorem in the field of electron microscopy. It states that there is a limit of resolution for electronic lenses because of unavoidable aberrations. German physicist Otto Scher
Orbital angular momentum of free electrons
Electrons in free space can carry quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) projected along the direction of propagation. This orbital angular momentum corresponds to helical wavefronts, or, equivalent
Selected area diffraction
Selected area (electron) diffraction (abbreviated as SAD or SAED), is a crystallographic experimental technique typically performed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). It is a specific cas
Photoemission electron microscopy
Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM, also called photoelectron microscopy, PEM) is a type of electron microscopy that utilizes local variations in electron emission to generate image contrast. The
Scanning confocal electron microscopy
Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) is an electron microscopy technique analogous to scanning confocal optical microscopy (SCOM). In this technique, the studied sample is illuminated by a foc
Negative stain
In microscopy, negative staining is an established method, often used in diagnostic microscopy, for contrasting a thin specimen with an optically opaque fluid. In this technique, the background is sta
Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing
Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing is a single-molecule sequencing technology that uses transmission electron microscopy techniques. The method was conceived and developed in the 1960s an
Electron channelling contrast imaging
Electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI) is a scanning electron microscope (SEM) diffraction technique used in the study of defects in materials. These can be dislocations or stacking faults that
Ultramicrotomy is a method for cutting specimens into extremely thin slices, called ultra-thin sections, that can be studied and documented at different magnifications in a transmission electron micro
Durcupan is a water-soluble epoxy resin produced by the Fluka subsidiary of Sigma-Aldrich. It is commonly used for embeddingelectron microscope samples in plastic so they may be sectioned (sliced thin
Charge contrast imaging
Charge contrast imaging is a scanning electron microscope imaging mode which can produce images of otherwise invisible microstructures in insulating materials and in fossils. While the technique clear
Ion milling machine
Ion milling machine thins samples until they are transparent to electrons by firing ions (typically argon) at the surface from an angle and sputtering material from the surface. By making a sample ele
Satyavati Motiram Sirsat
Satyavati Motiram Sirsat (7 October 1925 – 10 July 2010) was an Indian cancer researcher.
Ronchigram is the convergent beam diffraction pattern of a known object with features comparable to the diffracting wavelength. In the case of electron Ronchigrams amorphous materials are used. The st
Karnovsky fixative
Karnovsky fixative, developed by M. J. Karnovsky, is a fixative for electron microscopy.
Kikuchi lines (physics)
Kikuchi lines are patterns of electrons formed by scattering. They pair up to form bands in electron diffraction from single crystal specimens, there to serve as "roads in orientation-space" for micro
Austrian Centre for Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis
The Austrian Centre for Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis (short: FELMI-ZFE) is a cooperation between the Institute of Electron Microscopy and Nanoanalysis (FELMI) of the Graz University of Technol
Crowther criterion
The conventional method to evaluate the resolution of a tomography reconstruction is determined by the Crowther criterion.The minimum number of views, m, to reconstruct a particle of diameter D to a r
In situ electron microscopy
In situ electron microscopy is an investigatory technique where an electron microscope is used to watch a sample's response to a stimulus in real time. Due to the nature of the high-energy beam of ele
Multiscale tomography
Multiscale tomography (or multi-length scale tomography) is a form of tomography spanning large orders of magnitude in resolution, often utilizing many different forms of tomography together to do so.
Transmission Electron Aberration-Corrected Microscope
Transmission Electron Aberration-Corrected Microscope (TEAM) is a collaborative research project between four US laboratories and two companies. The project's main activity is design and application o
Microcrystal electron diffraction
Microcrystal electron diffraction, or MicroED, is a CryoEM method that was developed by the Gonen laboratory in late 2013 at the Janelia Research Campus of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. MicroED
Ultrastructure (or ultra-structure) is the architecture of cells and biomaterials that is visible at higher magnifications than found on a standard optical light microscope. This traditionally meant t
Dark-field microscopy
Dark-field microscopy (also called dark-ground microscopy) describes microscopy methods, in both light and electron microscopy, which exclude the unscattered beam from the image. As a result, the fiel
Low-voltage electron microscope
Low-voltage electron microscope (LVEM) is an electron microscope which operates at accelerating voltages of a few kiloelectronvolts or less. Traditional electron microscopes use accelerating voltages
Scanning electron cryomicroscopy
Scanning electron cryomicroscopy (CryoSEM) is a form of electron microscopy where a hydrated but cryogenically fixed sample is imaged on a scanning electron microscope's cold stage in a cryogenic cham
Transmission electron cryomicroscopy
Transmission electron cryomicroscopy (CryoTEM), commonly known as cryo-EM, is a form of cryogenic electron microscopy, more specifically a type of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) where the samp
Electron tomography
Electron tomography (ET) is a tomography technique for obtaining detailed 3D structures of sub-cellular, macro-molecular, or materials specimens. Electron tomography is an extension of traditional tra
Zone axis
Zone axis, a term sometimes used to refer to "high-symmetry" orientations in a crystal, most generally refers to any direction referenced to the direct lattice (as distinct from the reciprocal lattice
Electron microscope
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible l
CrysTBox (Crystallographic Tool Box) is a suite of computer tools designed to accelerate material research based on transmission electron microscope images via highly accurate automated analysis and i
Annular dark-field imaging
Annular dark-field imaging is a method of mapping samples in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). These images are formed by collecting scattered electrons with an annular dark-field de
Correlative light-electron microscopy
Correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) is the combination of an optical microscope - usually a fluorescence microscope - with an electron microscope. In an integrated CLEM system, the sample is
Electron beam-induced deposition
Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a process of decomposing gaseous molecules by an electron beam leading to deposition of non-volatile fragments onto a nearby substrate. The electron beam is
Wien filter
A Wien filter also known as velocity selector is a device consisting of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields that can be used as a velocity filter for charged particles, for example in electron
List of microscopy visualization systems
This is a list of software systems that are used for visualizing microscopy data. For each software system, the table below indicates which type of data can be displayed: EM = Electron microscopy; MG
EM Data Bank
The EM Data Bank or Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) collects 3D EM maps and associated experimental data determined using electron microscopy of biological specimens. It was established in 2002 a
F. M. L. Sheffield
Frances Marion Lina Sheffield OBE (3 February 1904 – 12 May 1973) was an English botanist.
Dose-fractionation theorem
The dose-fractionation theorem for tomographic imaging is a statement that says the total dose required to achieve statistical significance for each voxel of a computed 3D reconstruction is the same a
A stigmator is a component of electron microscopes that reduces astigmatism of the beam by imposing a weak electric or magnetic quadrupole field on the electron beam.
Direct methods (electron microscopy)
In crystallography, direct methods is a set of techniques used for structure determination using diffraction data and a priori information. It is a solution to the crystallographic phase problem, wher
Geometric phase analysis
Geometric phase analysis is a method of digital signal processing used to determine crystallographic quantities such as d-spacing or strain from high-resolution transmission electron microscope images
Fluctuation electron microscopy
Fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM), originally called Variable Coherence Microscopy before decoherence effects in the sample rendered that naming moot, is a technique in electron microscopy that pr
Immune electron microscopy
Immune electron microscopy (more often called immunoelectron microscopy) is the equivalent of immunofluorescence, but it uses electron microscopy rather than light microscopy. Immunoelectron microscop
Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy
Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy is a method to generate high resolution three-dimensional images from small samples. The technique was developed for brain tissue, but it is widely appli