Category: Electron

Plum pudding model
The plum pudding model is one of several historical scientific models of the atom. First proposed by J. J. Thomson in 1904 soon after the discovery of the electron, but before the discovery of the ato
Inner sphere electron transfer
Inner sphere electron transfer (IS ET) or bonded electron transfer is a redox chemical reaction that proceeds via a covalent linkage—a strong electronic interaction—between the oxidant and the reducta
Electron shell
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus. The closest shell to the nucleus is called the "1 shell" (also called t
Electron scattering
Electron scattering occurs when electrons are deviated from their original trajectory. This is due to the electrostatic forces within matter interaction or, if an external magnetic field is present, t
Electron excitation
Electron excitation is the transfer of a bound electron to a more energetic, but still bound state. This can be done by photoexcitation (PE), where the electron absorbs a photon and gains all its ener
Townsend discharge
The Townsend discharge or Townsend avalanche is a gas ionisation process where free electrons are accelerated by an electric field, collide with gas molecules, and consequently free additional electro
Thomson problem
The objective of the Thomson problem is to determine the minimum electrostatic potential energy configuration of n electrons constrained to the surface of a unit sphere that repel each other with a fo
Photoelectrochemical process
Photoelectrochemical processes are processes in photoelectrochemistry; they usually involve transforming light into other forms of energy. These processes apply to photochemistry, optically pumped las
Scattering amplitude
In quantum physics, the scattering amplitude is the probability amplitude of the outgoing spherical wave relative to the incoming plane wave in a stationary-state scattering process. The plane wave is
A PASER (an acronym from Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is a device that accelerates a coherent beam of electrons. This process was demonstrated for the first time in 2006
Mixed-valence complex
Mixed valence complexes contain an element which is present in more than one oxidation state. Well-known mixed valence compounds include the Creutz–Taube complex, Prussian blue, and molybdenum blue. M
Proton-to-electron mass ratio
In physics, the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ or β, is the rest mass of the proton (a baryon found in atoms) divided by that of the electron (a lepton found in atoms), a dimensionless quantity, nam
Electron precipitation
Electron precipitation (also called energetic electron precipitation or EEP) is an atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when previously trapped electrons enter the Earth's atmosphere, thus creating comm
Prehydrated electrons
Prehydrated electrons are free electrons that occur in water under irradiation. Usually they form complexes with water molecules and become hydrated electrons. They can also react with the bases of th
Phonon drag
Phonon drag is an increase in the effective mass of conduction electrons or valence holes due to interactions with the crystal lattice in which the electron moves. As an electron moves past atoms in t
Positron emission
Positron emission, beta plus decay, or β+ decay is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a posit
Ecton (physics)
Ectons are explosive electron emissions observed as individual packets or avalanches of electrons, occurring as microexplosions at the cathode. The electron current in an ecton starts flowing as a res
Bohr model of the chemical bond
In addition to the model of the atom, Niels Bohr also proposed a model of the chemical bond. He propose this model first in the article "Systems containing several nuclei" - the third and last of the
The electron (e− or β−) is a subatomic particle with a negative one elementary electric charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be
Atomic nucleus
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment
Outer sphere electron transfer
Outer sphere refers to an electron transfer (ET) event that occurs between chemical species that remain separate and intact before, during, and after the ET event. In contrast, for inner sphere electr
Electron multiplier
An electron multiplier is a vacuum-tube structure that multiplies incident charges. In a process called secondary emission, a single electron can, when bombarded on secondary-emissive material, induce
Electronic correlation
Electronic correlation is the interaction between electrons in the electronic structure of a quantum system. The correlation energy is a measure of how much the movement of one electron is influenced
Hole formalism
Hole formalism in quantum chemistry states that for many electronic properties, one may consider systems with e or (n-e), the number of unoccupied sites or "holes", to be equivalent.The number of micr
Dirac membrane
In quantum mechanics, a Dirac membrane is a model of a charged membrane introduced by Paul Dirac in 1962. Dirac's original motivation was to explain the mass of the muon as an excitation of the ground
Electron diffraction
Electron diffraction refers to the bending of electron beams around atomic structures. This behaviour, typical for waves, is applicable to electrons due to the wave–particle duality stating that elect
Classical electron radius
The classical electron radius is a combination of fundamental physical quantities that define a length scale for problems involving an electron interacting with electromagnetic radiation. It links the
Electron mass
The electron mass (symbol: me) is the mass of a stationary electron, also known as the invariant mass of the electron. It is one of the fundamental constants of physics. It has a value of about 9.109×
Independent electron approximation
In condensed matter physics, the independent electron approximation is a simplification used in complex systems, consisting of many electrons, that approximates the electron-electron interaction in cr
Free electron model
In solid-state physics, the free electron model is a quantum mechanical model for the behaviour of charge carriers in a metallic solid. It was developed in 1927, principally by Arnold Sommerfeld, who
One-electron universe
The one-electron universe postulate, proposed by theoretical physicist John Wheeler in a telephone call to Richard Feynman in the spring of 1940, is the hypothesis that all electrons and positrons are
Secondary emission
In particle physics, secondary emission is a phenomenon where primary incident particles of sufficient energy, when hitting a surface or passing through some material, induce the emission of secondary
Electron density
In quantum chemistry, electron density or electronic density is the measure of the probability of an electron being present at an infinitesimal element of space surrounding any given point. It is a sc
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron. It has an electric charge of +1 e, a spin of 1/2 (the same as the electron), and the same mass as an ele
Electron bubble
An electron bubble is the empty space created around a free electron in a cryogenic gas or liquid, such as neon or helium. They are typically very small, about 2 nm in diameter at atmospheric pressure
Relativistic runaway electron avalanche
A relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) is an avalanche growth of a population of relativistic electrons driven through a material (typically air) by an electric field. RREA has been hypothes
An electride is an ionic compound in which an electron is the anion. Solutions of alkali metals in ammonia are electride salts. In the case of sodium, these blue solutions consist of [Na(NH3)6]+ and s
Delta ray
A delta ray is a secondary electron with enough energy to escape a significant distance away from the primary radiation beam and produce further ionization, and is sometimes used to describe any recoi