Category: Electron states

Electron configuration
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals. For example,
Band gap
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap, is an energy range in a solid where no electronic states can exist. In graphs of the electronic band structure of solids, the band gap ge
Atomic electron transition
Atomic electron transition is a change (or jump) of an electron from one energy level to another within an atom or artificial atom. It appears discontinuous as the electron "jumps" from one quantized
Spin states (d electrons)
Spin states when describing transition metal coordination complexes refers to the potential spin configurations of the central metal's d electrons. For several oxidation states, metals can adopt high-
Valence electron
In chemistry and physics, a valence electron is an electron in the outer shell associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed. I
Secondary electrons
Secondary electrons are electrons generated as ionization products. They are called 'secondary' because they are generated by other radiation (the primary radiation). This radiation can be in the form
Hole formalism
Hole formalism in quantum chemistry states that for many electronic properties, one may consider systems with e or (n-e), the number of unoccupied sites or "holes", to be equivalent.The number of micr
Wet electrons
Wet electrons in chemistry and physics, which occur on the surface of metal oxides, are a transition state for electrons between the solid and liquid states of matter. Wet electrons are attracted to p
N-electron valence state perturbation theory
In quantum chemistry, n-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT) is a perturbative treatment applicable to multireference CASCI-type wavefunctions. It can be considered as a generalization o
Delocalized electron
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond. The term delocalization is general and can have sligh
Aufbau principle
The aufbau principle /ˈaʊfbaʊ/, from the German Aufbauprinzip (building-up principle), also called the aufbau rule, states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill subshells of the l
Judd–Ofelt theory
Judd–Ofelt theory is a theory in physical chemistry describing the intensity of electron transitions within the 4f shell of rare-earth ions in solids and solutions. The theory was introduced independe
Atomic orbital
In atomic theory and quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a function describing the location and wave-like behavior of an electron in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability
Glowing pickle demonstration
Applying line voltage across a pickled cucumber causes it to glow. A moist pickle contains salt as a result of the pickling process, which allows it to conduct electricity. Sodium (or other) ions with