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Convex function

In mathematics, a real-valued function is called convex if the line segment between any two points on the graph of the function lies above the graph between the two points. Equivalently, a function is

Polyconvex function

In mathematics, the notion of polyconvexity is a generalization of the notion of convexity for functions defined on spaces of matrices. Let Mm×n(K) denote the space of all m × n matrices over the fiel

Star domain

In geometry, a set in the Euclidean space is called a star domain (or star-convex set, star-shaped set or radially convex set) if there exists an such that for all the line segment from to lies in Thi

Uniformly convex space

In mathematics, uniformly convex spaces (or uniformly rotund spaces) are common examples of reflexive Banach spaces. The concept of uniform convexity was first introduced by James A. Clarkson in 1936.

Convex hull

In geometry, the convex hull or convex envelope or convex closure of a shape is the smallest convex set that contains it. The convex hull may be defined either as the intersection of all convex sets c

Macbeath region

In mathematics, a Macbeath region is an explicitly defined region in convex analysis on a bounded convex subset of d-dimensional Euclidean space . The idea was introduced by Alexander Macbeath and dub

Pseudoconvex function

In convex analysis and the calculus of variations, both branches of mathematics, a pseudoconvex function is a function that behaves like a convex function with respect to finding its local minima, but

Convex cone

In linear algebra, a cone—sometimes called a linear cone for distinguishing it from other sorts of cones—is a subset of a vector space that is closed under scalar multiplication; that is, C is a cone

Bipolar theorem

In mathematics, the bipolar theorem is a theorem in functional analysis that characterizes the bipolar (that is, the polar of the polar) of a set. In convex analysis, the bipolar theorem refers to a n

Schur-convex function

In mathematics, a Schur-convex function, also known as S-convex, isotonic function and order-preserving function is a function that for all such that is majorized by , one has that . Named after Issai

Minkowski's theorem

In mathematics, Minkowski's theorem is the statement that every convex set in which is symmetric with respect to the origin and which has volume greater than contains a non-zero integer point (meaning

Uniformly smooth space

In mathematics, a uniformly smooth space is a normed vector space satisfying the property that for every there exists such that if with and then The modulus of smoothness of a normed space X is the fu

Dieudonné's theorem

In mathematics, Dieudonné's theorem, named after Jean Dieudonné, is a theorem on when the Minkowski sum of closed sets is closed.

Ehrhart's volume conjecture

In the geometry of numbers, Ehrhart's volume conjecture gives an upper bound on the volume of a convex body containing only one lattice point in its interior. It is a kind of converse to Minkowski's t

Dual cone and polar cone

Dual cone and polar cone are closely related concepts in convex analysis, a branch of mathematics.

Tonelli's theorem (functional analysis)

In mathematics, Tonelli's theorem in functional analysis is a fundamental result on the weak lower semicontinuity of nonlinear functionals on Lp spaces. As such, it has major implications for function

Danzer set

In geometry, a Danzer set is a set of points that touches every convex body of unit volume. Ludwig Danzer asked whether it is possible for such a set to have bounded density. Several variations of thi

Convex analysis

Convex analysis is the branch of mathematics devoted to the study of properties of convex functions and convex sets, often with applications in convex minimization, a subdomain of optimization theory.

Modulus and characteristic of convexity

In mathematics, the modulus of convexity and the characteristic of convexity are measures of "how convex" the unit ball in a Banach space is. In some sense, the modulus of convexity has the same relat

Copositive matrix

In mathematics, specifically linear algebra, a real matrix A is copositive if for every nonnegative vector . The collection of all copositive matrices is a proper cone; it includes as a subset the col

Quasiconvex function

In mathematics, a quasiconvex function is a real-valued function defined on an interval or on a convex subset of a real vector space such that the inverse image of any set of the form is a convex set.

Proper convex function

In mathematical analysis, in particular the subfields of convex analysis and optimization, a proper convex function is an extended real-valued convex function with a non-empty domain, that never takes

Radial set

In mathematics, a subset of a linear space is radial at a given point if for every there exists a real such that for every Geometrically, this means is radial at if for every there is some (non-degene

Random polytope

In mathematics, a random polytope is a structure commonly used in convex analysis and the analysis of linear programs in d-dimensional Euclidean space . Depending on use the construction and definitio

SOS-convexity

A multivariate polynomial is SOS-convex (or sum of squares convex) if its Hessian matrix H can be factored as H(x) = ST(x)S(x) where S is a matrix (possibly rectangular) which entries are polynomials

Minkowski functional

In mathematics, in the field of functional analysis, a Minkowski functional (after Hermann Minkowski) or gauge function is a function that recovers a notion of distance on a linear space. If is a subs

Absolutely convex set

In mathematics, a subset C of a real or complex vector space is said to be absolutely convex or disked if it is convex and balanced (some people use the term "circled" instead of "balanced"), in which

K-convex function

K-convex functions, first introduced by Scarf, are a special weakening of the concept of convex function which is crucial in the proof of the optimality of the policy in inventory control theory. The

Jensen's inequality

In mathematics, Jensen's inequality, named after the Danish mathematician Johan Jensen, relates the value of a convex function of an integral to the integral of the convex function. It was proved by J

Effective domain

In convex analysis, a branch of mathematics, the effective domain is an extension of the domain of a function defined for functions that take values in the extended real number line In convex analysis

Epigraph (mathematics)

In mathematics, the epigraph or supergraph of a function valued in the extended real numbers is the set, denoted by of all points in the Cartesian product lying on or above its graph. The strict epigr

Hilbert projection theorem

In mathematics, the Hilbert projection theorem is a famous result of convex analysis that says that for every vector in a Hilbert space and every nonempty closed convex there exists a unique vector fo

Concave function

In mathematics, a concave function is the negative of a convex function. A concave function is also synonymously called concave downwards, concave down, convex upwards, convex cap, or upper convex.

Characteristic function (convex analysis)

In the field of mathematics known as convex analysis, the characteristic function of a set is a convex function that indicates the membership (or non-membership) of a given element in that set. It is

Convex cap

A convex cap, also known as a convex floating body or just floating body, is a well defined structure in mathematics commonly used in convex analysis for approximating convex shapes. In general it can

Convex optimization

Convex optimization is a subfield of mathematical optimization that studies the problem of minimizing convex functions over convex sets (or, equivalently, maximizing concave functions over convex sets

Fenchel–Moreau theorem

In convex analysis, the Fenchel–Moreau theorem (named after Werner Fenchel and Jean Jacques Moreau) or Fenchel biconjugation theorem (or just biconjugation theorem) is a theorem which gives necessary

Kachurovskii's theorem

In mathematics, Kachurovskii's theorem is a theorem relating the convexity of a function on a Banach space to the monotonicity of its Fréchet derivative.

Karamata's inequality

In mathematics, Karamata's inequality, named after Jovan Karamata, also known as the majorization inequality, is a theorem in elementary algebra for convex and concave real-valued functions, defined o

Complex convexity

Complex convexity is a general term in complex geometry.

Lower convex envelope

In mathematics, the lower convex envelope of a function defined on an interval is defined at each point of the interval as the supremum of all convex functions that lie under that function, i.e.

Algebraic interior

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, the algebraic interior or radial kernel of a subset of a vector space is a refinement of the concept of the interior.

Moreau's theorem

In mathematics, Moreau's theorem is a result in convex analysis named after French mathematician Jean-Jacques Moreau. It shows that sufficiently well-behaved convex functionals on Hilbert spaces are d

Concavification

In mathematics, concavification is the process of converting a non-concave function to a concave function. A related concept is convexification – converting a non-convex function to a convex function.

Ekeland's variational principle

In mathematical analysis, Ekeland's variational principle, discovered by Ivar Ekeland, is a theorem that asserts that there exist nearly optimal solutions to some optimization problems. Ekeland's prin

Hypograph (mathematics)

In mathematics, the hypograph or subgraph of a function is the set of points lying on or below its graph. A related definition is that of such a function's epigraph, which is the set of points on or a

Convex conjugate

In mathematics and mathematical optimization, the convex conjugate of a function is a generalization of the Legendre transformation which applies to non-convex functions. It is also known as Legendre–

Invex function

In vector calculus, an invex function is a differentiable function from to for which there exists a vector valued function such that for all x and u. Invex functions were introduced by Hanson as a gen

Legendre transformation

In mathematics, the Legendre transformation (or Legendre transform), named after Adrien-Marie Legendre, is an involutive transformation on real-valued convex functions of one real variable. In physica

Popoviciu's inequality

In convex analysis, Popoviciu's inequality is an inequality about convex functions. It is similar to Jensen's inequality and was found in 1965 by Tiberiu Popoviciu, a Romanian mathematician.

Hadamard three-lines theorem

In complex analysis, a branch of mathematics, the Hadamard three-lines theorem is a result about the behaviour of holomorphic functions defined in regions bounded by parallel lines in the complex plan

Locally convex topological vector space

In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, locally convex topological vector spaces (LCTVS) or locally convex spaces are examples of topological vector spaces (TVS) that generalize norme

Farkas' lemma

Farkas' lemma is a solvability theorem for a finite system of linear inequalities in mathematics. It was originally proven by the Hungarian mathematician Gyula Farkas.Farkas' lemma is the key result u

Closed convex function

In mathematics, a function is said to be closed if for each , the sublevel setis a closed set. Equivalently, if the epigraph defined byis closed, then the function is closed. This definition is valid

Gauss–Lucas theorem

In complex analysis, a branch of mathematics, the Gauss–Lucas theorem gives a geometric relation between the roots of a polynomial P and the roots of its derivative P′. The set of roots of a real or c

Logarithmically concave function

In convex analysis, a non-negative function f : Rn → R+ is logarithmically concave (or log-concave for short) if its domain is a convex set, and if it satisfies the inequality for all x,y ∈ dom f and

Linear separability

In Euclidean geometry, linear separability is a property of two sets of points. This is most easily visualized in two dimensions (the Euclidean plane) by thinking of one set of points as being colored

Shephard's problem

In mathematics, Shephard's problem, is the following geometrical question asked by Geoffrey Colin Shephard in 1964: if K and L are centrally symmetric convex bodies in n-dimensional Euclidean space su

Strictly convex space

In mathematics, a strictly convex space is a normed vector space (X, || ||) for which the closed unit ball is a strictly convex set. Put another way, a strictly convex space is one for which, given an

Convex set

In geometry, a subset of a Euclidean space, or more generally an affine space over the reals, is convex if, given any two points in the subset, the subset contains the whole line segment that joins th

Recession cone

In mathematics, especially convex analysis, the recession cone of a set is a cone containing all vectors such that recedes in that direction. That is, the set extends outward in all the directions giv

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