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Penny graph

In geometric graph theory, a penny graph is a contact graph of unit circles. It is formed from a collection of unit circles that do not cross each other, by creating a vertex for each circle and an ed

Ring lemma

In the geometry of circle packings in the Euclidean plane, the ring lemma gives a lower bound on the sizes of adjacent circles in a circle packing.

Thomson problem

The objective of the Thomson problem is to determine the minimum electrostatic potential energy configuration of n electrons constrained to the surface of a unit sphere that repel each other with a fo

Circle packing theorem

The circle packing theorem (also known as the Koebe–Andreev–Thurston theorem) describes the possible tangency relations between circles in the plane whose interiors are disjoint. A circle packing is a

Ford circle

In mathematics, a Ford circle is a circle with center at and radius where is an irreducible fraction, i.e. and are coprime integers. Each Ford circle is tangent to the horizontal axis and any two Ford

Circle packing

In geometry, circle packing is the study of the arrangement of circles (of equal or varying sizes) on a given surface such that no overlapping occurs and so that no circle can be enlarged without crea

Circle packing in a circle

Circle packing in a circle is a two-dimensional packing problem with the objective of packing unit circles into the smallest possible larger circle.

Pappus chain

In geometry, the Pappus chain is a ring of circles between two tangent circles investigated by Pappus of Alexandria in the 3rd century AD.

Steiner chain

In geometry, a Steiner chain is a set of n circles, all of which are tangent to two given non-intersecting circles (blue and red in Figure 1), where n is finite and each circle in the chain is tangent

Circle packing in an equilateral triangle

Circle packing in an equilateral triangle is a packing problem in discrete mathematics where the objective is to pack n unit circles into the smallest possible equilateral triangle. Optimal solutions

Doyle spiral

In the mathematics of circle packing, a Doyle spiral is a pattern of non-crossing circles in the plane in which each circle is surrounded by a ring of six tangent circles. These patterns contain spira

Malfatti circles

In geometry, the Malfatti circles are three circles inside a given triangle such that each circle is tangent to the other two and to two sides of the triangle. They are named after Gian Francesco Malf

Descartes' theorem

In geometry, Descartes' theorem states that for every four kissing, or mutually tangent, circles, the radii of the circles satisfy a certain quadratic equation. By solving this equation, one can const

Coxeter's loxodromic sequence of tangent circles

In geometry, Coxeter's loxodromic sequence of tangent circles is an infinite sequence of circles arranged so that any four consecutive circles in the sequence are pairwise mutually tangent. This means

Introduction to Circle Packing

Introduction to Circle Packing: The Theory of Discrete Analytic Functions is a mathematical monograph concerning systems of tangent circles and the circle packing theorem. It was written by Kenneth St

Circle packing in a square

Circle packing in a square is a packing problem in recreational mathematics, where the aim is to pack n unit circles into the smallest possible square. Equivalently, the problem is to arrange n points

Tammes problem

In geometry, the Tammes problem is a problem in packing a given number of circles on the surface of a sphere such that the minimum distance between circles is maximized. It is named after the Dutch bo

Circle packing in an isosceles right triangle

Circle packing in a right isosceles triangle is a packing problem where the objective is to pack n unit circles into the smallest possible isosceles right triangle. Minimum solutions (lengths shown ar

Apollonian gasket

In mathematics, an Apollonian gasket or Apollonian net is a fractal generated by starting with a triple of circles, each tangent to the other two, and successively filling in more circles, each tangen

Archimedean circle

In geometry, an Archimedean circle is any circle constructed from an arbelos that has the same radius as each of Archimedes' twin circles. If the arbelos is normed such that the diameter of its outer

Midsphere

In geometry, the midsphere or intersphere of a polyhedron is a sphere which is tangent to every edge of the polyhedron. That is to say, it touches any given edge at exactly one point. Not every polyhe

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