Paper size standards govern the size of sheets of paper used as writing paper, stationery, cards, and for some printed documents. The ISO 216 standard, which includes the commonly used A4 size, is the
Drafting film is a sturdier and more dimensionally stable substitute for drafting paper sometimes used for technical drawings, especially architectural drawings, and for art layout drawings, replacing
Hatching (French: hachure) is an artistic technique used to create tonal or shading effects by drawing (or painting or scribing) closely spaced parallel lines. (It is also used in monochromatic repres
Parallel motion linkage
In kinematics, the parallel motion linkage is a six-bar mechanical linkage invented by the Scottish engineer James Watt in 1784 for the double-acting Watt steam engine. It allows a rod moving practica
Sunspot drawing or sunspot sketching is the act of drawing sunspots. Sunspots are darker spots on the Sun's photosphere. Their prediction is very important for radio communication because they are str
Centre-to-centre distance (c.t.c. distance or ctc distance) is a concept for distances, also called on-center spacing (o.c. spacing or oc spacing), heart distance, and pitch. It is the distance betwee
Technical drawing tool
Drafting tools may be used for measurement and layout of drawings, or to improve the consistency and speed of creation of standard drawing elements. Tools such as pens and pencils mark the drawing med
A linear scale, also called a bar scale, scale bar, graphic scale, or graphical scale, is a means of visually showing the scale of a map, nautical chart, engineering drawing, or architectural drawing.
A wall plan is a drawing which consists of complete details with dimensions (with an accuracy of an inch) about all four sides and ceiling of each and every room in a building. It is drawn with the he
A house plan is a set of construction or working drawings (sometimes called blueprints) that define all the construction specifications of a residential house such as the dimensions, materials, layout
Cross section (geometry)
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces. Cutting an object into slice
Archaeological illustration is a form of technical illustration that records material derived from an archaeological context graphically.
An engineering drawing is a type of technical drawing that is used to convey information about an object. A common use is to specify the geometry necessary for the construction of a component and is c
A medical illustration is a form of biological illustration that helps to record and disseminate medical, anatomical, and related knowledge.
A reference dimension is a dimension on an engineering drawing provided for information only. Reference dimensions are provided for a variety of reasons and are often an accumulation of other dimensio
The Schmidt net is a manual drafting method for the Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection using graph paper. It results in one lateral hemisphere of the Earth with the grid of parallels and meridian
An engineering technologist is a professional trained in certain aspects of development and implementation of a respective area of technology. Engineering technology education is even more applied and
Technical lettering is the process of forming letters, numerals, and other characters in technical drawing. It is used to describe, or provide detailed specifications for, an object. With the goals of
A site plan or a plot plan is a type of drawing used by architects, landscape architects, urban planners, and engineers which shows existing and proposed conditions for a given area, typically a parce
Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed. Technical drawing is essential for communic
An exploded-view drawing is a diagram, picture, schematic or technical drawing of an object, that shows the relationship or order of assembly of various parts. It shows the components of an object sli
A plumbing drawing, a type of technical drawing, shows the system of piping for fresh water going into the building and waste going out, both solid and liquid.It also includes fuel gas drawings. Mainl
Product and manufacturing information
Product and manufacturing information, also abbreviated PMI, conveys non-geometric attributes in 3D computer-aided design (CAD) and Collaborative Product Development systems necessary for manufacturin
Lofting is a drafting technique to generate curved lines. It is used in plans for streamlined objects such as aircraft and boats. The lines may be drawn on wood and the wood then cut for advanced wood
ISO 128 is an international standard (ISO), about the general principles of presentation in technical drawings, specifically the graphical representation of objects on technical drawings.
Technical Illustration is illustration meant to visually communicate information of a technical nature. Technical illustrations can be components of technical drawings or diagrams. Technical illustrat
An electrical drawing is a type of technical drawing that shows information about power, lighting, and communication for an engineering or architectural project. Any electrical working drawing consist
Projected tolerance zone
In geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, a projected tolerance zone is defined to predict the final dimensions and locations of features on a component or assembly subject to tolerance stack-up.
An architectural drawing or architect's drawing is a technical drawing of a building (or building project) that falls within the definition of architecture. Architectural drawings are used by architec
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) is a system for defining and communicating engineering tolerances and relationships. It uses a symbolic language on engineering drawings and computer-gene
A bird's-eye view is an elevated view of an object or location from a very steep viewing angle, creating a perspective as if the observer were a bird in flight looking downwards. Bird's-eye views can
Plans are a set of drawings or two-dimensional diagrams used to describe a place or object, or to communicate building or fabrication instructions. Usually plans are drawn or printed on paper, but the
In archaeological excavation, a plan is a drawn record of features and artifacts in the horizontal plane.
M. Louise Baker
M. (Mary) Louise Baker (1872 – 1962) was an American archaeological illustrator, resident artist at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (1908-1936), and an art teache
ISO 7200, titled Technical product documentation - Data fields in title blocks and document headers, is an international technical standard defined by ISO which describes title block formats to be use
A cutaway drawing, also called a cutaway diagram is a 3D graphics, drawing, diagram and or illustration, in which surface elements of a three-dimensional model are selectively removed, to make interna
In geometry and in its applications to drawing, a perspectivity is the formation of an image in a picture plane of a scene viewed from a fixed point.
Embryo drawing is the illustration of embryos in their developmental sequence. In plants and animals, an embryo develops from a zygote, the single cell that results when an egg and sperm fuse during f
In architecture and building engineering, a floor plan is a technical drawing to scale, showing a view from above, of the relationships between rooms, spaces, traffic patterns, and other physical feat
An aperture card is a type of punched card with a cut-out window into which a chip of microfilm is mounted. Such a card is used for archiving or for making multiple inexpensive copies of a document fo
ASME Y14.41 is a standard published by American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) which establishes requirements and reference documents applicable to the preparation and revisionof digital produ
In a technical drawing, a basic dimension is a theoretically exact dimension, given from a datum to a feature of interest. In Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, basic dimensions are defined as a
Whiteprint describes a document reproduction produced by using the diazo chemical process. It is also known as the blue-line process since the result is blue lines on a white background. It is a conta
Graph paper, coordinate paper, grid paper, or squared paper is writing paper that is printed with fine lines making up a regular grid. The lines are often used as guides for plotting graphs of functio
A patent application or patent may contain drawings, also called patent drawings, illustrating the invention, some of its embodiments (which are particular implementations or methods of carrying out t
Architectural rendering, architectural illustration, or architectural visualization is the art of creating three-dimensional images or animations showing the attributes of a proposed architectural des
Graphic communication as the name suggests is communication using graphic elements. These elements include symbols such as glyphs and icons, images such as drawings and photographs, and can include th
An engineering technician is a professional trained in skills and techniques related to a specific branch of technology, with a practical understanding of the relevant engineering concepts. Engineerin
Linear or point-projection perspective (from Latin: perspicere 'to see through') is one of two types of graphical projection perspective in the graphic arts; the other is parallel projection. Linear p
A structural drawing, a type of engineering drawing, is a plan or set of plans and details for how a building or other structure will be built. Structural drawings are generally prepared by registered
BS 8888 is the British standard developed by the BSI Group for technical product documentation, geometric product specification, geometric tolerance specification and engineering drawings.
A photolith film is a transparent film, made with some sort of transparent plastic (formerly made of acetate). Nowadays, with the use of laser printers and computers, the photolith film can be based o
Position Tolerance (symbol: ⌖) is a geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) location control used on engineering drawings to specify desired location, as well as allowed deviation to the positio
ASME Y14.5 is a standard published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to establish rules, symbols, definitions, requirements, defaults, and recommended practices for stating and in
A shop drawing is a drawing or set of drawings produced by the contractor, supplier, manufacturer, subcontractor, consultants, or fabricator. Shop drawings are typically required for prefabricated com
A worm's-eye view is a view of an object from below, as though the observer were a worm; the opposite of a bird's-eye view. It can be used to look up to something to make an object look tall, strong,
Mechanical systems drawing
Mechanical systems drawing is a type of technical drawing that shows information about heating, ventilating, air conditioning and transportation around the building (Elevators or Lifts and Escalator).
National Geographical Organization of Iran
The National Geographical Organization of Iran or National Geographical Organization of the Armed Forces of Iran (Persian: سازمان جغرافیایی ایران, or Persian: سازمان جغرافیایی نیروهای مسلح) is an Iran
A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing or engineering drawing using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets. Introduced by Sir John Herschel in 1842, the process allowed rapid
T-Square is an early drafting program written by Peter Samson assisted by Alan Kotok and possibly Robert A. Saunders while they were students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and members o
In science and engineering, a semi-log plot/graph or semi-logarithmic plot/graph has one axis on a logarithmic scale, the other on a linear scale. It is useful for data with exponential relationships,
A civil drawing, or site drawing, is a type of technical drawing that shows information about grading, landscaping, or other site details. These drawings are intended to give a clear picture of all th
A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule, named after its popularizer, Henry Gantt (1861–1919), who designed such a chart around the years 1910–1915. Modern Gantt chart