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Causal inference

Causal inference is the process of determining the independent, actual effect of a particular phenomenon that is a component of a larger system. The main difference between causal inference and infere

Path analysis (statistics)

In statistics, path analysis is used to describe the directed dependencies among a set of variables. This includes models equivalent to any form of multiple regression analysis, factor analysis, canon

Relational dependency network

Relational dependency networks (RDNs) are graphical models which extend dependency networks to account for relational data. Relational data is data organized into one or more tables, which are cross-r

Factor graph

A factor graph is a bipartite graph representing the factorization of a function. In probability theory and its applications, factor graphs are used to represent factorization of a probability distrib

Ancestral graph

In statistics and Markov modeling, an ancestral graph is a type of mixed graph to provide a graphical representation for the result of marginalizing one or more vertices in a graphical model that take

Bayesian network

A Bayesian network (also known as a Bayes network, Bayes net, belief network, or decision network) is a probabilistic graphical model that represents a set of variables and their conditional dependenc

Partial least squares path modeling

The partial least squares path modeling or partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-PM, PLS-SEM) is a method for structural equation modeling that allows estimation of complex cause-eff

Causal graph

In statistics, econometrics, epidemiology, genetics and related disciplines, causal graphs (also known as path diagrams, causal Bayesian networks or DAGs) are probabilistic graphical models used to en

Collider (statistics)

In statistics and causal graphs, a variable is a collider when it is causally influenced by two or more variables. The name "collider" reflects the fact that in graphical models, the arrow heads from

Graphical lasso

In statistics, the graphical lasso is a sparse penalized maximum likelihood estimator for the concentration or precision matrix (inverse of covariance matrix) of a multivariate elliptical distribution

Graphical model

A graphical model or probabilistic graphical model (PGM) or structured probabilistic model is a probabilistic model for which a graph expresses the conditional dependence structure between random vari

Dependability state model

A dependability state diagram is a method for modelling a system as a Markov chain. It is used in reliability engineering for availability and reliability analysis. It consists of creating a finite st

Generalized distributive law

The generalized distributive law (GDL) is a generalization of the distributive property which gives rise to a general message passing algorithm. It is a synthesis of the work of many authors in the in

Filters, random fields, and maximum entropy model

In the domain of physics and probability, the filters, random fields, and maximum entropy (FRAME) model is a Markov random field model (or a Gibbs distribution) of stationary spatial processes, in whi

Markov random field

In the domain of physics and probability, a Markov random field (MRF), Markov network or undirected graphical model is a set of random variables having a Markov property described by an undirected gra

Graphical models for protein structure

Graphical models have become powerful frameworks for protein structure prediction, protein–protein interaction, and free energy calculations for protein structures. Using a graphical model to represen

Plate notation

In Bayesian inference, plate notation is a method of representing variables that repeat in a graphical model. Instead of drawing each repeated variable individually, a plate or rectangle is used to gr

Moral graph

In graph theory, a moral graph is used to find the equivalent undirected form of a directed acyclic graph. It is a key step of the junction tree algorithm, used in belief propagation on graphical mode

Belief propagation

Belief propagation, also known as sum–product message passing, is a message-passing algorithm for performing inference on graphical models, such as Bayesian networks and Markov random fields. It calcu

Dependency network (graphical model)

Dependency networks (DNs) are graphical models, similar to Markov networks, wherein each vertex (node) corresponds to a random variable and each edge captures dependencies among variables. Unlike Baye

Structural equation modeling

Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a label for a diverse set of methods used by scientists in both experimental and observational research across the sciences, business, and other fields. It is use

M-separation

In statistics, m-separation is a measure of disconnectedness in ancestral graphs and a generalization of d-separation for directed acyclic graphs. It is the opposite of m-connectedness. Suppose G is a

Variable elimination

Variable elimination (VE) is a simple and general exact inference algorithm in probabilistic graphical models, such as Bayesian networks and Markov random fields. It can be used for inference of maxim

Conditional random field

Conditional random fields (CRFs) are a class of statistical modeling methods often applied in pattern recognition and machine learning and used for structured prediction. Whereas a classifier predicts

Variational autoencoder

In machine learning, a variational autoencoder (VAE), is an artificial neural network architecture introduced by Diederik P. Kingma and Max Welling, belonging to the families of probabilistic graphica

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