Category: Grammar frameworks

Discontinuous-constituent phrase structure grammar
Discontinuous-constituent Phrase Structure Grammar (DCPSG) (distinct from Discontinuous Phrase Structure Grammar/DPSG) is a formalism for describing discontinuous phrase structures in natural language
Deep Linguistic Processing with HPSG - INitiative (DELPH-IN) is a collaboration where computational linguists worldwide develop natural language processing tools for deep linguistic processing of huma
Deep linguistic processing
Deep linguistic processing is a natural language processing framework which draws on theoretical and descriptive linguistics. It models language predominantly by way of theoretical syntactic/semantic
Head grammar
Head grammar (HG) is a grammar formalism introduced in Carl Pollard (1984) as an extension of the context-free grammar class of grammars. Head grammar is therefore a type of phrase structure grammar,
Literal movement grammar
In linguistics and theoretical computer science, literal movement grammars (LMGs) are a grammar formalism intended to characterize certain extraposition phenomena of natural language such as topicaliz
Manning's Law
Manning's Law describes the combination of principles that need to be balanced in the design and growth of universal linguistic dependencies. These dependencies are used to describe and model syntacti
Phrase structure rules
Phrase structure rules are a type of rewrite rule used to describe a given language's syntax and are closely associated with the early stages of transformational grammar, proposed by Noam Chomsky in 1
Role and reference grammar
Role and reference grammar (RRG) is a model of grammar developed by William A. Foley and Robert Van Valin, Jr. in the 1980s, which incorporates many of the points of view of current functional grammar
Construction grammar
Construction grammar (often abbreviated CxG) is a family of theories within the field of cognitive linguistics which posit that constructions, or learned pairings of linguistic patterns with meanings,
Global index grammar
Global index grammars (GIGs) are a class of grammars introduced in Castaño (2004) in order to model a number of phenomena, including natural language grammar and genome grammar. The easiest descriptio
ID/LP grammar
ID/LP Grammars are a subset of Phrase Structure Grammars, differentiated from other formal grammars by distinguishing between immediate dominance (ID) and linear precedence (LP) constraints. Whereas t
Principles and parameters
Principles and parameters is a framework within generative linguistics in which the syntax of a natural language is described in accordance with general principles (i.e. abstract rules or grammars) an
Constraint grammar
Constraint grammar (CG) is a methodological paradigm for natural language processing (NLP). Linguist-written, context-dependent rules are compiled into a grammar that assigns grammatical tags ("readin
Cartographic syntax
In linguistics, Cartographic syntax, or simply Cartography, is a branch of Generative syntax. The basic assumption of Cartographic syntax is that syntactic structures are built according to the same p
Integrational theory of grammars
The integrational theory of grammars is the theory of linguistic descriptions that has been developed within the general linguistic approach of integrational linguistics (IL).
Affix grammar
An affix grammar is a kind of formal grammar; it is used to describe the syntax of languages, mainly computer languages, using an approach based on how natural language is typically described. The gra
Minimal recursion semantics
Minimal recursion semantics (MRS) is a framework for computational semantics. It can be implemented in typed feature structure formalisms such as head-driven phrase structure grammar and lexical funct
Model-theoretic grammar
Model-theoretic grammars, also known as constraint-based grammars, contrast with generative grammars in the way they define sets of sentences: they state constraints on syntactic structure rather than
Universal Conceptual Cognitive Annotation
Universal Conceptual Cognitive Annotation (UCCA) is a semantic approach to grammatical representation. It is a cross-linguistically applicable semantic representation scheme, and has demonstrated supp
Tree-adjoining grammar
Tree-adjoining grammar (TAG) is a grammar formalism defined by Aravind Joshi. Tree-adjoining grammars are somewhat similar to context-free grammars, but the elementary unit of rewriting is the tree ra
Generative semantics
Generative semantics was a research program in theoretical linguistics which held that syntactic structures are computed on the basis of meanings rather than the other way around. Generative semantics
Grammatical Framework
Grammatical Framework (GF) is a programming language for writing grammars of natural languages. GF is capable of parsing and generating texts in several languages simultaneously while working from a l
Basic Linguistic Theory
Basic Linguistic Theory (BLT) is a term coined by R. M. W. Dixon to describe the theoretical framework and basic concepts that is generally used in grammatical description of languages, and in linguis
Head-driven phrase structure grammar
Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is a highly lexicalized, constraint-based grammardeveloped by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag. It is a type of phrase structure grammar, as opposed to a dependenc
Functional linguistics
Functional linguistics is an approach to the study of language characterized by taking systematically into account the speaker's and the hearer's side, and the communicative needs of the speaker and o
Indexed grammar
Indexed grammars are a generalization of context-free grammars in that nonterminals are equipped with lists of flags, or index symbols.The language produced by an indexed grammar is called an indexed
Michael Brame
Michael K. Brame (January 27, 1944 — August 16, 2010) was an American linguist and professor at the University of Washington, and founding editor of the peer-reviewed research journal, Linguistic Anal
Gramática de la lengua castellana
Gramática de la lengua castellana (lit. 'Grammar of the Castilian Language') is a book written by Antonio de Nebrija and published in 1492. It was the first work dedicated to the Spanish language and
Generalized phrase structure grammar
Generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages. It is a type of constraint-based phrase structure grammar. Constraint based gra
In linguistics, antisymmetry is a syntactic theory presented in Richard S. Kayne's 1994 monograph The Antisymmetry of Syntax. It asserts that grammatical hierarchies in natural language follow a unive
Arc pair grammar
In linguistics, arc pair grammar (APG) is a theory of syntax that aims to formalize and expand upon relational grammar. It primarily builds upon the relational grammar concept of an arc, but also make
Functional discourse grammar
Functional grammar (FG) and functional discourse grammar (FDG) are grammar models and theories motivated by functional theories of grammar. These theories explain how linguistic utterances are shaped,
Controlled grammar
Controlled grammars are a class of grammars that extend, usually, the context-free grammars with additional controls on the derivations of a sentence in the language. A number of different kinds of co
Combinatory categorial grammar
Combinatory categorial grammar (CCG) is an efficiently parsable, yet linguistically expressive grammar formalism. It has a transparent interface between surface syntax and underlying semantic represen
Discourse grammar
Discourse Grammar (DG) is a grammatical framework that grew out of the analysis of spoken and written linguistic discourse on the one hand, and of work on parenthetical expressions, including Simon C.
Context-sensitive grammar
A context-sensitive grammar (CSG) is a formal grammar in which the left-hand sides and right-hand sides of any production rules may be surrounded by a context of terminal and nonterminal symbols. Cont
Systemic functional grammar
Systemic functional grammar (SFG) is a form of grammatical description originated by Michael Halliday. It is part of a social semiotic approach to language called systemic functional linguistics. In t
Fluid construction grammar
Fluid construction grammar (FCG) is an open-source computational construction grammar formalism that allows computational linguists to formally write down the inventory of lexical and grammatical cons
Linear unit grammar
In linguistics, linear unit grammar (LUG) is an approach that describes language in chunks that unfold in real time, based on the notion that language is a sequential stream of spoken or written words
Stochastic grammar
A stochastic grammar (statistical grammar) is a grammar framework with a probabilistic notion of grammaticality: * Stochastic context-free grammar * Statistical parsing * Data-oriented parsing * H
Thetical grammar
Thetical grammar forms one of the two domains of discourse grammar, the other domain being sentence grammar. The building blocks of thetical grammar are theticals, that is, linguistic expressions whic
Data-oriented parsing
Data-oriented parsing (DOP, also data-oriented processing) is a probabilistic model in computational linguistics. DOP was conceived by Remko Scha in 1990 with the aim of developing a performance-orien
Transformational grammar
In linguistics, transformational grammar (TG) or transformational-generative grammar (TGG) is part of the theory of generative grammar, especially of natural languages. It considers grammar to be a sy
Minimalist grammar
Minimalist grammars are a class of formal grammars that aim to provide a more rigorous, usually proof-theoretic, formalization of Chomskyan Minimalist program than is normally provided in the mainstre
Lexical functional grammar
Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a constraint-based grammar framework in theoretical linguistics. It posits two separate levels of syntactic structure, a phrase structure grammar representation of
Integrational linguistics
Integrational Linguistics (IL) is a general approach to linguistics that has been developed by the German linguist Hans-Heinrich Lieb and others since the late 1960s. The term "Integrational Linguisti
Affix grammar over a finite lattice
In linguistics, the affix grammars over a finite lattice (AGFL) formalism is a notation for context-free grammars with finite set-valued features, acceptable to linguists of many different schools. Th
Pattern grammar
Pattern Grammar is a model for describing the syntactic environments of individual lexical items, derived from studying their occurrences in authentic linguistic corpora. It was developed by Hunston,
Dependency grammar
Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern grammatical theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the constituency relation of phrase structure) and that can be traced bac
Categorial grammar
Categorial grammar is a family of formalisms in natural language syntax that share the central assumption that syntactic constituents combine as functions and arguments. Categorial grammar posits a cl
Integrational theory of language
The Integrational theory of language is the general theory of language that has been developed within the general linguistic approach of integrational linguistics. Differently from most other approach
Generative grammar
Generative grammar, or generativism /ˈdʒɛnərətɪvɪzəm/, is a linguistic theory that regards linguistics as the study of a hypothesised innate grammatical structure. It is a biological or biologistic mo
Relational grammar
In linguistics, relational grammar (RG) is a syntactic theory which argues that primitive grammatical relations provide the ideal means to state syntactic rules in universal terms. Relational grammar
Extended affix grammar
In computer science, extended affix grammars (EAGs) are a formal grammar formalism for describing the context free and context sensitive syntax of language, both natural language and programming langu
Minimalist program
In linguistics, the minimalist program is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside generative grammar since the early 1990s, starting with a 1993 paper by Noam Chomsky. Following Imre L
Cooptation (grammar)
Cooptation is a cognitive-communicative operation whereby a piece of text, such as a clause, a phrase, a word, or any other unit, is inserted in a sentence. In the framework of Discourse Grammar, coop
Government and binding theory
Government and binding (GB, GBT) is a theory of syntax and a phrase structure grammar in the tradition of transformational grammar developed principally by Noam Chomsky in the 1980s. This theory is a
Interactional linguistics
Interactional linguistics (IL) is an interdisciplinary approach to grammar and interaction in the field of linguistics, that applies the methodology of Conversation Analysis to the study of linguistic
Pregroup grammar
Pregroup grammar (PG) is a grammar formalism intimately related to categorial grammars. Much like categorial grammar (CG), PG is a kind of . Unlike CG, however, PG does not have a distinguished functi
Genitive connector
A genitive connector is a part of speech used in formation of compound terms through conjunctions. It is used especially in the Bantu languages to denote special word categories. Nouns can be modified
Q-systems are a method of directed graph transformations according to given grammar rules, developed at the Université de Montréal by Alain Colmerauer in 1967–70 for use in natural language processing
Phrasal template
A phrasal template is a phrase-long collocation that contains one or several empty slots which may be filled by words to produce individual phrases.
Dynamic syntax
Dynamic Syntax (DS) is a grammar formalism and linguistic theory whose overall aim is to explain the real-time processes of language understanding and production, and describe linguistic structures as
Range concatenation grammar
Range concatenation grammar (RCG) is a grammar formalism developed by Pierre Boullier in 1998 as an attempt to characterize a number of phenomena of natural language, such as Chinese numbers and Germa
Generalized context-free grammar
Generalized context-free grammar (GCFG) is a grammar formalism that expands on context-free grammars by adding potentially non-context-free composition functions to rewrite rules. Head grammar (and it
Higher order grammar
Higher order grammar (HOG) is a grammar theory based on higher-order logic. It can be viewed simultaneously as generative-enumerative (like categorial grammar and principles and parameters) or model t