Category: Duality theories

Born reciprocity
In physics, Born reciprocity, also called reciprocal relativity or Born–Green reciprocity, is a principle set up by theoretical physicist Max Born that calls for a duality-symmetry among space and mom
Noncommutative harmonic analysis
In mathematics, noncommutative harmonic analysis is the field in which results from Fourier analysis are extended to topological groups that are not commutative. Since locally compact abelian groups h
Dual graph
In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, the dual graph of a plane graph G is a graph that has a vertex for each face of G. The dual graph has an edge for each pair of faces in G that are separ
Duality (mechanical engineering)
In mechanical engineering, many terms are associated into pairs called duals. A dual of a relationship is formed by interchanging force (stress) and deformation (strain) in an expression. Here is a pa
Coherent duality
In mathematics, coherent duality is any of a number of generalisations of Serre duality, applying to coherent sheaves, in algebraic geometry and complex manifold theory, as well as some aspects of com
Duality (projective geometry)
In geometry, a striking feature of projective planes is the symmetry of the roles played by points and lines in the definitions and theorems, and (plane) duality is the formalization of this concept.
Duality (electricity and magnetism)
In physics, the electromagnetic dual concept is based on the idea that, in the static case, electromagnetism has two separate facets: electric fields and magnetic fields. Expressions in one of these w
Pontryagin duality
In mathematics, Pontryagin duality is a duality between locally compact abelian groups that allows generalizing Fourier transform to all such groups, which include the circle group (the multiplicative
General frame
In logic, general frames (or simply frames) are Kripke frames with an additional structure, which are used to model modal and intermediate logics. The general frame semantics combines the main virtues
Riesz–Markov–Kakutani representation theorem
In mathematics, the Riesz–Markov–Kakutani representation theorem relates linear functionals on spaces of continuous functions on a locally compact space to measures in measure theory. The theorem is n
SYZ conjecture
The SYZ conjecture is an attempt to understand the mirror symmetry conjecture, an issue in theoretical physics and mathematics. The original conjecture was proposed in a paper by Strominger, Yau, and
Semi-reflexive space
In the area of mathematics known as functional analysis, a semi-reflexive space is a locally convex topological vector space (TVS) X such that the canonical evaluation map from X into its bidual (whic
Supporting functional
In convex analysis and mathematical optimization, the supporting functional is a generalization of the supporting hyperplane of a set.
Dual system
In mathematics, a dual system, dual pair, or duality over a field is a triple consisting of two vector spaces and over and a non-degenerate bilinear map . Duality theory, the study of dual systems, is
Alexander–Spanier cohomology
In mathematics, particularly in algebraic topology, Alexander–Spanier cohomology is a cohomology theory for topological spaces.
Gallai–Hasse–Roy–Vitaver theorem
In graph theory, the Gallai–Hasse–Roy–Vitaver theorem is a form of duality between the colorings of the vertices of a given undirected graph and the orientations of its edges. It states that the minim
Hodge star operator
In mathematics, the Hodge star operator or Hodge star is a linear map defined on the exterior algebra of a finite-dimensional oriented vector space endowed with a nondegenerate symmetric bilinear form
Poincaré complex
In mathematics, and especially topology, a Poincaré complex (named after the mathematician Henri Poincaré) is an abstraction of the singular chain complex of a closed, orientable manifold. The singula
Riesz representation theorem
The Riesz representation theorem, sometimes called the Riesz–Fréchet representation theorem after Frigyes Riesz and Maurice René Fréchet, establishes an important connection between a Hilbert space an
Tannaka–Krein duality
In mathematics, Tannaka–Krein duality theory concerns the interaction of a compact topological group and its category of linear representations. It is a natural extension of Pontryagin duality, betwee
Duality theory for distributive lattices
In mathematics, duality theory for distributive lattices provides three different (but closely related) representations of bounded distributive lattices via Priestley spaces, spectral spaces, and pair
Duality (electrical circuits)
In electrical engineering, electrical terms are associated into pairs called duals. A dual of a relationship is formed by interchanging voltage and current in an expression. The dual expression thus p
Duality (mathematics)
In mathematics, a duality translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a one-to-one fashion, often (but not always) by means of an involutio
Generalized Stokes theorem
In vector calculus and differential geometry the generalized Stokes theorem (sometimes with apostrophe as Stokes' theorem or Stokes's theorem), also called the Stokes–Cartan theorem, is a statement ab
Local Tate duality
In Galois cohomology, local Tate duality (or simply local duality) is a duality for Galois modules for the absolute Galois group of a non-archimedean local field. It is named after John Tate who first
Dual abelian variety
In mathematics, a dual abelian variety can be defined from an abelian variety A, defined over a field K.
Duality (order theory)
In the mathematical area of order theory, every partially ordered set P gives rise to a dual (or opposite) partially ordered set which is often denoted by Pop or Pd. This dual order Pop is defined to
Esakia duality
In mathematics, Esakia duality is the dual equivalence between the category of Heyting algebras and the category of Esakia spaces. Esakia duality provides an order-topological representation of Heytin
Spanier–Whitehead duality
In mathematics, Spanier–Whitehead duality is a duality theory in homotopy theory, based on a geometrical idea that a topological space X may be considered as dual to its complement in the n-sphere, wh
Six operations
In mathematics, Grothendieck's six operations, named after Alexander Grothendieck, is a formalism in homological algebra, also known as the six-functor formalism. It originally sprang from the relatio
Twisted Poincaré duality
In mathematics, the twisted Poincaré duality is a theorem removing the restriction on Poincaré duality to oriented manifolds. The existence of a global orientation is replaced by carrying along local
Artin–Verdier duality
In mathematics, Artin–Verdier duality is a duality theorem for constructible abelian sheaves over the spectrum of a ring of algebraic numbers, introduced by Michael Artin and Jean-Louis Verdier, that
Dual impedance
Dual impedance and dual network are terms used in electronic network analysis. The dual of an impedance is its reciprocal, or algebraic inverse . For this reason the dual impedance is also called the
Homological mirror symmetry
Homological mirror symmetry is a mathematical conjecture made by Maxim Kontsevich. It seeks a systematic mathematical explanation for a phenomenon called mirror symmetry first observed by physicists s
Tutte polynomial
The Tutte polynomial, also called the dichromate or the Tutte–Whitney polynomial, is a graph polynomial. It is a polynomial in two variables which plays an important role in graph theory. It is define
Koszul duality
In mathematics, Koszul duality, named after the French mathematician Jean-Louis Koszul, is any of various kinds of dualities found in representation theory of Lie algebras, abstract algebras (semisimp
Reflexive module
No description available.
Reflexive space
In the area of mathematics known as functional analysis, a reflexive space is a locally convex topological vector space (TVS) for which the canonical evaluation map from into its bidual (which is the
Supporting hyperplane
In geometry, a supporting hyperplane of a set in Euclidean space is a hyperplane that has both of the following two properties: * is entirely contained in one of the two closed half-spaces bounded by
Poincaré duality
In mathematics, the Poincaré duality theorem, named after Henri Poincaré, is a basic result on the structure of the homology and cohomology groups of manifolds. It states that if M is an n-dimensional
Envelope (category theory)
In Category theory and related fields of mathematics, an envelope is a construction that generalizes the operations of "exterior completion", like completion of a locally convex space, or Stone–Čech c
Dual wavelet
In mathematics, a dual wavelet is the dual to a wavelet. In general, the wavelet series generated by a square-integrable function will have a dual series, in the sense of the Riesz representation theo
Seiberg duality
In quantum field theory, Seiberg duality, conjectured by Nathan Seiberg in 1994, is an S-duality relating two different supersymmetric QCDs. The two theories are not identical, but they agree at low e
Dual space
In mathematics, any vector space has a corresponding dual vector space (or just dual space for short) consisting of all linear forms on , together with the vector space structure of pointwise addition
De Morgan's laws
In propositional logic and Boolean algebra, De Morgan's laws, also known as De Morgan's theorem, are a pair of transformation rules that are both valid rules of inference. They are named after Augustu
Tannakian formalism
In mathematics, a Tannakian category is a particular kind of monoidal category C, equipped with some extra structure relative to a given field K. The role of such categories C is to approximate, in so
List of dualities
In mathematics, a duality, generally speaking, translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a one-to-one fashion, often (but not always) by
Group scheme
In mathematics, a group scheme is a type of object from algebraic geometry equipped with a composition law. Group schemes arise naturally as symmetries of schemes, and they generalize algebraic groups
Refinement (category theory)
In category theory and related fields of mathematics, a refinement is a construction that generalizes the operations of "interior enrichment", like bornologification or saturation of a locally convex
Dual (category theory)
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, duality is a correspondence between the properties of a category C and the dual properties of the opposite category Cop. Given a statement regarding the ca
Stone duality
In mathematics, there is an ample supply of categorical dualities between certain categories of topological spaces and categories of partially ordered sets. Today, these dualities are usually collecte
Tate duality
In mathematics, Tate duality or Poitou–Tate duality is a duality theorem for Galois cohomology groups of modules over the Galois group of an algebraic number field or local field, introduced by John T
Convex conjugate
In mathematics and mathematical optimization, the convex conjugate of a function is a generalization of the Legendre transformation which applies to non-convex functions. It is also known as Legendre–
Morita equivalence
In abstract algebra, Morita equivalence is a relationship defined between rings that preserves many ring-theoretic properties. More precisely two rings like R, S are Morita equivalent (denoted by ) if
Legendre transformation
In mathematics, the Legendre transformation (or Legendre transform), named after Adrien-Marie Legendre, is an involutive transformation on real-valued convex functions of one real variable. In physica
Local cohomology
In algebraic geometry, local cohomology is an algebraic analogue of relative cohomology. Alexander Grothendieck introduced it in seminars in Harvard in 1961 written up by , and in 1961-2 at IHES writt
Eckmann–Hilton duality
In the mathematical disciplines of algebraic topology and homotopy theory, Eckmann–Hilton duality in its most basic form, consists of taking a given diagram for a particular concept and reversing the
Grothendieck local duality
In commutative algebra, Grothendieck local duality is a duality theorem for cohomology of modules over local rings, analogous to Serre duality of coherent sheaves.
Montonen–Olive duality
Montonen–Olive duality or electric–magnetic duality is the oldest known example of strong–weak duality or S-duality according to current terminology. It generalizes the electro-magnetic symmetry of Ma
Wave–particle duality
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantum entity may be described as either a particle or a wave. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts "p
Intersection homology
In topology, a branch of mathematics, intersection homology is an analogue of singular homology especially well-suited for the study of singular spaces, discovered by Mark Goresky and Robert MacPherso
Alexander duality
In mathematics, Alexander duality refers to a duality theory presaged by a result of 1915 by J. W. Alexander, and subsequently further developed, particularly by Pavel Alexandrov and Lev Pontryagin. I
Alvis–Curtis duality
In mathematics, the Alvis–Curtis duality is a duality operation on the characters of a reductive group over a finite field, introduced by Charles W. Curtis and studied by his student Dean Alvis. Kawan
Dual matroid
In matroid theory, the dual of a matroid is another matroid that has the same elements as , and in which a set is independent if and only if has a basis set disjoint from it. Matroid duals go back to
Serre duality
In algebraic geometry, a branch of mathematics, Serre duality is a duality for the coherent sheaf cohomology of algebraic varieties, proved by Jean-Pierre Serre. The basic version applies to vector bu
Lefschetz duality
In mathematics, Lefschetz duality is a version of Poincaré duality in geometric topology, applying to a manifold with boundary. Such a formulation was introduced by Solomon Lefschetz, at the same time
Verdier duality
In mathematics, Verdier duality is a cohomological duality in algebraic topology that generalizes Poincaré duality for manifolds. Verdier duality was introduced in 1965 by Jean-Louis Verdier as an ana
Combinatorial mirror symmetry
A purely combinatorial approach to mirror symmetry was suggested by Victor Batyrev using the polar duality for -dimensional convex polyhedra. The most famous examples of the polar duality provide Plat
Dual polyhedron
In geometry, every polyhedron is associated with a second dual structure, where the vertices of one correspond to the faces of the other, and the edges between pairs of vertices of one correspond to t
Fei–Ranis model of economic growth
The Fei–Ranis model of economic growth is a dualism model in developmental economics or welfare economics that has been developed by and Gustav Ranis and can be understood as an extension of the Lewis