Unicode equivalence is the specification by the Unicode character encoding standard that some sequences of code points represent essentially the same character. This feature was introduced in the standard to allow compatibility with preexisting standard character sets, which often included similar or identical characters. Unicode provides two such notions, canonical equivalence and compatibility. Code point sequences that are defined as canonically equivalent are assumed to have the same appearance and meaning when printed or displayed. For example, the code point U+006E (the Latin lowercase "n") followed by U+0303 (the combining tilde "◌̃") is defined by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the single code point U+00F1 (the lowercase letter "ñ" of the Spanish alphabet). Therefore, those sequences should be displayed in the same manner, should be treated in the same way by applications such as alphabetizing names or searching, and may be substituted for each other. Similarly, each Hangul syllable block that is encoded as a single character may be equivalently encoded as a combination of a leading conjoining jamo, a vowel conjoining jamo, and, if appropriate, a trailing conjoining jamo. Sequences that are defined as compatible are assumed to have possibly distinct appearances, but the same meaning in some contexts. Thus, for example, the code point U+FB00 (the typographic ligature "ﬀ") is defined to be compatible—but not canonically equivalent—to the sequence U+0066 U+0066 (two Latin "f" letters). Compatible sequences may be treated the same way in some applications (such as sorting and indexing), but not in others; and may be substituted for each other in some situations, but not in others. Sequences that are canonically equivalent are also compatible, but the opposite is not necessarily true. The standard also defines a text normalization procedure, called Unicode normalization, that replaces equivalent sequences of characters so that any two texts that are equivalent will be reduced to the same sequence of code points, called the normalization form or normal form of the original text. For each of the two equivalence notions, Unicode defines two normal forms, one fully composed (where multiple code points are replaced by single points whenever possible), and one fully decomposed (where single points are split into multiple ones). (Wikipedia).

Put all three properties of binary relations together and you have an equivalence relation.

From playlist Abstract algebra

Equivalence Relations Definition and Examples

Please Subscribe here, thank you!!! https://goo.gl/JQ8Nys Equivalence Relations Definition and Examples. This video starts by defining a relation, reflexive relation, symmetric relation, transitive relation, and then an equivalence relation. Several examples are given.

From playlist Abstract Algebra

This video is a full introduction to equivalence relations. Timestamps: 0:00 What is a relation? 3:02 Terminology - A Relation defined on a Set 4:02 Equivalence Relation Definition 7:18 Reflexive 9:18 Symmetric 11:48 Transitive Thanks for watching! Comment below with questions, and make

From playlist Proofs

Set Theory (Part 6): Equivalence Relations and Classes

Please feel free to leave comments/questions on the video and practice problems below! In this video, I set up equivalence relations and the canonical mapping. The idea of equivalence relation will return when we construct higher-level number systems, e.g.integers, from the natural number

From playlist Set Theory by Mathoma

Discrete Math - 9.5.1 Equivalence Relations

Exploring a special kind of relation, called an equivalence relation. Equivalence classes and partitions are also discussed. Textbook: Rosen, Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications, 7e Playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLl-gb0E4MII28GykmtuBXNUNoej-vY5Rz

From playlist Discrete Math I (Entire Course)

The picture in the lecture was taken from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_the_United_States#/media/File:USA2020dec1.png

From playlist Abstract Algebra 1

Cosets and equivalence class proof

Now that we have shown that the relation on G is an equivalence relation ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F7OgJi6o9po ), we can go on to prove that the equivalence class containing an element is the same as the corresponding set on H (a subset of G).

From playlist Abstract algebra

Unicode Normalization for NLP in Python

ℕ𝕠-𝕠𝕟𝕖 𝕚𝕟 𝕥𝕙𝕖𝕚𝕣 𝕣𝕚𝕘𝕙𝕥 𝕞𝕚𝕟𝕕 𝕨𝕠𝕦𝕝𝕕 𝕖𝕧𝕖𝕣 𝕦𝕤𝕖 𝕥𝕙𝕖𝕤𝕖 𝕒𝕟𝕟𝕠𝕪𝕚𝕟𝕘 𝕗𝕠𝕟𝕥 𝕧𝕒𝕣𝕚𝕒𝕟𝕥𝕤. 𝕋𝕙𝕖 𝕨𝕠𝕣𝕤𝕥 𝕥𝕙𝕚𝕟𝕘, 𝕚𝕤 𝕚𝕗 𝕪𝕠𝕦 𝕕𝕠 𝕒𝕟𝕪 𝕗𝕠𝕣𝕞 𝕠𝕗 ℕ𝕃ℙ 𝕒𝕟𝕕 𝕪𝕠𝕦 𝕙𝕒𝕧𝕖 𝕔𝕙𝕒𝕣𝕒𝕔𝕥𝕖𝕣𝕤 𝕝𝕚𝕜𝕖 𝕥𝕙𝕚𝕤 𝕚𝕟 𝕪𝕠𝕦𝕣 𝕚𝕟𝕡𝕦𝕥, 𝕪𝕠𝕦𝕣 𝕥𝕖𝕩𝕥 𝕓𝕖𝕔𝕠𝕞𝕖𝕤 𝕔𝕠𝕞𝕡𝕝𝕖𝕥𝕖𝕝𝕪 𝕦𝕟𝕣𝕖𝕒𝕕𝕒𝕓𝕝𝕖. We also find that text like this is incredibly common - particularly on social me

From playlist Recommended

Important Math Proof: The Set of Equivalence Classes Partition a Set

In this video I prove a very important result in mathematics. Given an equivalence relation R on a nonempty set A, the set S of equivalence classes of A is a partition of A. Stated another way, this result says we can write A as a disjoint union of equivalence classes. The pencils I used

From playlist Relations

Equivalence Relation on a Group Two Proofs

Please Subscribe here, thank you!!! https://goo.gl/JQ8Nys Equivalence Relation on a Group Two Proofs. Given a group G and a subgroup H of G, we prove that the relation x=y if xy^{-1} is in H is an equivalence relation on G. Then cosets are defined and we prove that s_1 = s_2 iff [s_1] = [s

From playlist Abstract Algebra

RubyHACK 2018: Ruby and Unicode, what could go wr�ng? by Aaron Lasseigne

RubyHACK 2018: Ruby and Unicode, what could go wr�ng? by Aaron Lasseigne Everything! Ok, maybe not everything but more than you might suspect. Unicode is great but implementing all written languages comes with a price. Find out about the current state of Ruby support, learn about Unicode

From playlist RubyHACK 2018

SOURCE Boston 2009: Exploiting Unicode-enable Software

Speaker: Chris Weber, Casaba Security The complex landscape of Unicode offers a ripe area for vulnerability research and exploitation. Many public misperceptions exist around Unicode. This presentation's intention is to educate the audience on the security issues around Unicode and Intern

From playlist Latest uploads

Live CEOing Ep 567: Language Design in Wolfram Language [Grapheme-Based Functions & JSON Import]

In this episode of Live CEOing, Stephen Wolfram discusses upcoming improvements and features to the Wolfram Language. If you'd like to contribute to the discussion in future episodes, you can participate through this YouTube channel or through the official Twitch channel of Stephen Wolfram

From playlist Behind the Scenes in Real-Life Software Design

!!Con 2016 - My favorite Unicode character: the zero-width joiner! By Anne Decusatis

My favorite Unicode character: the zero-width joiner! By Anne Decusati Some people have favorite numbers, and since character encodings are basically mappings from binary numbers to characters, I think it's pretty much equivalent to say I have a favorite character! U+200D ZERO WIDTH JOINE

From playlist RailsConf 2016

Emoji and the Levitating Businessman - Computerphile

Audible free book: http://www.audible.com/computerphile Unicode is changing, adding tons more icons and smilies - But what's new and why? Tom Scott takes us through the improvements... More from Tom Scott: http://www.youtube.com/user/enyay and https://twitter.com/tomscott Characters, Sym

From playlist Subtitled Films

Mathias Bynens: JavaScript ♥ Unicode

This presentation explains the various ways in which JavaScript relies on Unicode, what the consequences are for JavaScript developers, and how ECMAScript 6 will make our lives a bit easier in this regard. First off, the basics of Unicode are explained. Once that’s out of the way, I’ll ta

From playlist JSConf EU 2014

In this computer science video you will learn about text files. Specifically, you will see how Unicode code points are encoded into binary and why the byte order, that is the endianness, of some Unicode Transformation Formats could be an important consideration if you’re a programmer hand

From playlist Binary

OSB 2015 - Hello, my name is __________. - Nova Patch

Our personal identity is core to how we perceive ourselves and wish to be seen. All too often, however, applications, databases, and user interfaces are not designed to fully support the diversity of personal and social identities expressed throughout the world.

From playlist Open Source Bridge 2015

Python - strings and collections (part 1 of 3)

Strings and collections in the Python language. Part of a larger series at codeschool.org

From playlist Python strings and collections

Fundamentals of Mathematics - Lecture 26: Well-Definedness

course page: https://www.uvm.edu/~tdupuy/logic/Math52-Fall2017.html videography - Eric Melton, UVM

From playlist Fundamentals of Mathematics