Useful Links
Physics
Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic Processes
Isothermal Process
Definition and Characteristics
Occurs at a constant temperature
Involves heat exchange with surroundings
Mathematical Analysis
Use of Ideal Gas Law
Isothermal Expansion and Compression
Practical Examples
Industrial Applications
Isothermal Processes in Nature
Adiabatic Process
Definition and Characteristics
No heat exchange with surroundings
Temperature changes occur due to work done
Equations and Analysis
Adiabatic equation for perfect gases
Specific Heat Ratios
Types of Adiabatic Processes
Adiabatic Expansion
Adiabatic Compression
Applications
Adiabatic Cooling in Atmosphere
Engineering and Thermodynamic Systems
Isobaric Process
Definition and Characteristics
Occurs at constant pressure
Mathematical Treatment
Work done calculated using \( W = P \Delta V \)
Analysis based on volume changes
Examples in Real Life
Heating and Cooling at constant pressure
Engine Operations
Isochoric Process
Definition and Characteristics
Volume remains constant
No work is done on the system
Mathematical Representation
Relation between pressure and temperature
Use Cases
Chemical Reactions at Constant Volume
Calibration of Thermometric Devices
Reversible and Irreversible Processes
Definition and Comparison
Reversible: Infinite number of equilibrium states
Irreversible: Finite rate processes, real-world processes
Factors Affecting Reversibility
Friction, Turbulence, Inelastic Deformation
Examples and Applications
Ideal vs Real Engine Cycles
Reversibility in Natural Systems
Cyclic Processes
Basic Definition
Processes that return a system to its initial state
Analysis of Cycles
Efficiency Calculations
Work Output Analysis
Common Cyclic Processes
Power Generation Cycles
Refrigeration Cycles
Connection to Thermodynamic Cycles and Heat Engines
2. Laws of Thermodynamics
First Page
4. Thermodynamic Systems