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Curl (mathematics)

In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal circulation of a vector field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. The curl at a point in the field is represented b

Line integral

In mathematics, a line integral is an integral where the function to be integrated is evaluated along a curve. The terms path integral, curve integral, and curvilinear integral are also used; contour

Gauss's law for gravity

In physics, Gauss's law for gravity, also known as Gauss's flux theorem for gravity, is a law of physics that is equivalent to Newton's law of universal gravitation. It is named after Carl Friedrich G

Time dependent vector field

In mathematics, a time dependent vector field is a construction in vector calculus which generalizes the concept of vector fields. It can be thought of as a vector field which moves as time passes. Fo

Helmholtz decomposition

In physics and mathematics, in the area of vector calculus, Helmholtz's theorem, also known as the fundamental theorem of vector calculus, states that any sufficiently smooth, rapidly decaying vector

Vector-valued function

A vector-valued function, also referred to as a vector function, is a mathematical function of one or more variables whose range is a set of multidimensional vectors or infinite-dimensional vectors. T

Clebsch representation

In physics and mathematics, the Clebsch representation of an arbitrary three-dimensional vector field is: where the scalar fields and are known as Clebsch potentials or Monge potentials, named after A

Comparison of vector algebra and geometric algebra

Geometric algebra is an extension of vector algebra, providing additional algebraic structures on vector spaces, with geometric interpretations. Vector algebra uses all dimensions and signatures, as d

Surface gradient

In vector calculus, the surface gradient is a vector differential operator that is similar to the conventional gradient. The distinction is that the surface gradient takes effect along a surface. For

Gradient

In vector calculus, the gradient of a scalar-valued differentiable function f of several variables is the vector field (or vector-valued function) whose value at a point is the "direction and rate of

Blade (geometry)

In the study of geometric algebras, a k-blade or a simple k-vector is a generalization of the concept of scalars and vectors to include simple bivectors, trivectors, etc. Specifically, a k-blade is a

Multipole expansion

A multipole expansion is a mathematical series representing a function that depends on angles—usually the two angles used in the spherical coordinate system (the polar and azimuthal angles) for three-

Poloidal–toroidal decomposition

In vector calculus, a topic in pure and applied mathematics, a poloidal–toroidal decomposition is a restricted form of the Helmholtz decomposition. It is often used in the spherical coordinates analys

Radiative flux

Radiative flux, also known as radiative flux density or radiation flux (or sometimes power flux density), is the amount of power radiated through a given area, in the form of photons or other elementa

Stokes' theorem

Stokes's theorem, also known as the Kelvin–Stokes theorem after Lord Kelvin and George Stokes, the fundamental theorem for curls or simply the curl theorem, is a theorem in vector calculus on R3. Give

Advection

In the field of physics, engineering, and earth sciences, advection is the transport of a substance or quantity by bulk motion of a fluid. The properties of that substance are carried with it. General

Deformation (meteorology)

Deformation is the rate of change of shape of fluid bodies. Meteorologically, this quantity is very important in the formation of atmospheric fronts, in the explanation of cloud shapes, and in the dif

Bivector

In mathematics, a bivector or 2-vector is a quantity in exterior algebra or geometric algebra that extends the idea of scalars and vectors. If a scalar is considered a degree-zero quantity, and a vect

Solenoidal vector field

In vector calculus a solenoidal vector field (also known as an incompressible vector field, a divergence-free vector field, or a transverse vector field) is a vector field v with divergence zero at al

Uniqueness theorem for Poisson's equation

The uniqueness theorem for Poisson's equation states that, for a large class of boundary conditions, the equation may have many solutions, but the gradient of every solution is the same. In the case o

Electromagnetism uniqueness theorem

The electromagnetism uniqueness theorem states that providing boundary conditions for Maxwell's equations uniquely fixes a solution for those equations. However, this theorem must not be misunderstood

Vector field reconstruction

Vector field reconstruction is a method of creating a vector field from experimental or computer generated data, usually with the goal of finding a differential equation model of the system. A differe

Lamb vector

In fluid dynamics, Lamb vector is the cross product of vorticity vector and velocity vector of the flow field, named after the physicist Horace Lamb. The Lamb vector is defined as where is the velocit

Skew gradient

In mathematics, a skew gradient of a harmonic function over a simply connected domain with two real dimensions is a vector field that is everywhere orthogonal to the gradient of the function and that

Calculus on Manifolds (book)

Calculus on Manifolds: A Modern Approach to Classical Theorems of Advanced Calculus (1965) by Michael Spivak is a brief, rigorous, and modern textbook of multivariable calculus, differential forms, an

Conservative vector field

In vector calculus, a conservative vector field is a vector field that is the gradient of some function. A conservative vector field has the property that its line integral is path independent; the ch

Divergence

In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that operates on a vector field, producing a scalar field giving the quantity of the vector field's source at each point. More technically, the dive

Gauss's law

In physics and electromagnetism, Gauss's law, also known as Gauss's flux theorem, (or sometimes simply called Gauss's theorem) is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting el

Flux

Flux describes any effect that appears to pass or travel (whether it actually moves or not) through a surface or substance. Flux is a concept in applied mathematics and vector calculus which has many

Vector operator

A vector operator is a differential operator used in vector calculus. Vector operators are defined in terms of del, and include the gradient, divergence, and curl: The Laplacian is Vector operators mu

Vector Analysis

Vector Analysis is a textbook by Edwin Bidwell Wilson, first published in 1901 and based on the lectures that Josiah Willard Gibbs had delivered on the subject at Yale University. The book did much to

Normal (geometry)

In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line, ray, or vector that is perpendicular to a given object. For example, the normal line to a plane curve at a given point is the (infinite) line perpend

Line integral convolution

In scientific visualization, line integral convolution (LIC) is a method to visualize a vector field, such as fluid motion.

Vector spherical harmonics

In mathematics, vector spherical harmonics (VSH) are an extension of the scalar spherical harmonics for use with vector fields. The components of the VSH are complex-valued functions expressed in the

Del

Del, or nabla, is an operator used in mathematics (particularly in vector calculus) as a vector differential operator, usually represented by the nabla symbol ∇. When applied to a function defined on

Vector calculus identities

The following are important identities involving derivatives and integrals in vector calculus.

Del in cylindrical and spherical coordinates

This is a list of some vector calculus formulae for working with common curvilinear coordinate systems.

Laplacian vector field

In vector calculus, a Laplacian vector field is a vector field which is both irrotational and incompressible. If the field is denoted as v, then it is described by the following differential equations

Green's identities

In mathematics, Green's identities are a set of three identities in vector calculus relating the bulk with the boundary of a region on which differential operators act. They are named after the mathem

Quadruple product

In mathematics, the quadruple product is a product of four vectors in three-dimensional Euclidean space. The name "quadruple product" is used for two different products, the scalar-valued scalar quadr

Chandrasekhar–Wentzel lemma

In vector calculus, Chandrasekhar–Wentzel lemma was derived by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Gregor Wentzel in 1965, while studying the stability of rotating liquid drop. The lemma states that if is

Gradient-related

Gradient-related is a term used in multivariable calculus to describe a direction. A direction sequence is gradient-related to if for any subsequence that converges to a nonstationary point, the corre

Vectorial Mechanics

Vectorial Mechanics (1948) is a book on vector manipulation (i.e., vector methods) by Edward Arthur Milne, a highly decorated (e.g., James Scott Prize Lectureship) British astrophysicist and mathemati

Complex lamellar vector field

In vector calculus, a complex lamellar vector field is a vector field which is orthogonal to a family of surfaces. In the broader context of differential geometry, complex lamellar vector fields are m

Field line

A field line is a graphical visual aid for visualizing vector fields. It consists of an imaginary directed line which is tangent to the field vector at each point along its length. A diagram showing a

Energy flux

Energy flux is the rate of transfer of energy through a surface. The quantity is defined in two different ways, depending on the context: 1.
* Total rate of energy transfer (not per unit area); SI un

Noise-equivalent target

In detection systems, the noise-equivalent target (NET) is the intensity of a target measured by a system when the signal-to-noise ratio of the system is 1. Noise-equivalent temperature is an example

Vector potential

In vector calculus, a vector potential is a vector field whose curl is a given vector field. This is analogous to a scalar potential, which is a scalar field whose gradient is a given vector field. Fo

D'Alembert–Euler condition

In mathematics and physics, especially the study of mechanics and fluid dynamics, the d'Alembert-Euler condition is a requirement that the streaklines of a flow are irrotational. Let x = x(X,t) be the

Parallelogram of force

The parallelogram of forces is a method for solving (or visualizing) the results of applying two forces to an object. When more than two forces are involved, the geometry is no longer parallelogrammat

Scalar potential

In mathematical physics, scalar potential, simply stated, describes the situation where the difference in the potential energies of an object in two different positions depends only on the positions,

Flow velocity

In continuum mechanics the flow velocity in fluid dynamics, also macroscopic velocity in statistical mechanics, or drift velocity in electromagnetism, is a vector field used to mathematically describe

Mass flux

In physics and engineering, mass flux is the rate of mass flow. Its SI units are kg m−2 s−1. The common symbols are j, J, q, Q, φ, or Φ (Greek lower or capital Phi), sometimes with subscript m to indi

Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector or simply a vector (sometimes called a geometric vector or spatial vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and directi

Noise-equivalent flux density

In optics the noise-equivalent flux density (NEFD) or noise-equivalent irradiance (NEI) of a system is the level of flux density required to be equivalent to the noise present in the system. It is a m

Leximin order

In mathematics, leximin order is a total preorder on finite-dimensional vectors. A more accurate, but less common term is leximin preorder. The leximin order is particularly important in social choice

Vector fields in cylindrical and spherical coordinates

Note: This page uses common physics notation for spherical coordinates, in which is the angle between the z axis and the radius vector connecting the origin to the point in question, while is the angl

Vector calculus

Vector calculus, or vector analysis, is concerned with differentiation and integration of vector fields, primarily in 3-dimensional Euclidean space The term "vector calculus" is sometimes used as a sy

Beltrami vector field

In vector calculus, a Beltrami vector field, named after Eugenio Beltrami, is a vector field in three dimensions that is parallel to its own curl. That is, F is a Beltrami vector field provided that T

Vector field

In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For instance, a vector field in the plane can be visualised as a collection of arrows wi

Pseudovector

In physics and mathematics, a pseudovector (or axial vector) is a quantity that is defined as a function of some vectors or other geometric shapes, that resembles a vector, and behaves like a vector i

Volumetric flux

In fluid dynamics, the volumetric flux is the rate of volume flow across a unit area (m3·s−1·m−2). Volumetric flux has dimensions of volume/(time*area). The density of a particular property in a fluid

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