# Category: Turbulence models

Menter's Shear Stress Transport
Menter's Shear Stress Transport turbulence model, or SST, is a widely used and robust two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence model used in Computational Fluid Dynamics. The model combines the k-omega
Transition modeling
Transition modeling is the use of a model to predict the change from laminar and turbulent flows in fluids and their respective effects on the overall solution. The complexity and lack of understandin
Turbulence modeling
Turbulence modeling is the construction and use of a mathematical model to predict the effects of turbulence. Turbulent flows are commonplace in most real life scenarios, including the flow of blood t
Churn turbulent flow
Churn turbulent flow is a two-phase gas/liquid flow regime characterized by a highly-agitated flow where gas bubbles are sufficient in numbers to both interact with each other and, while interacting,
Cebeci–Smith model
The Cebeci–Smith model is a 0-equation eddy viscosity model used in computational fluid dynamics analysis of turbulent boundary layer flows. The model gives eddy viscosity, , as a function of the loca
K-epsilon turbulence model
K-epsilon (k-ε) turbulence model is the most common model used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate mean flow characteristics for turbulent flow conditions. It is a two equation model tha
Two-dimensional point vortex gas
The two-dimensional point vortex gas is a discrete particle model used to study turbulence in two-dimensional ideal fluids. The two-dimensional guiding-center plasma is a completely equivalent model u
Large eddy simulation
Large eddy simulation (LES) is a mathematical model for turbulence used in computational fluid dynamics. It was initially proposed in 1963 by Joseph Smagorinsky to simulate atmospheric air currents, a
Filter (large eddy simulation)
Filtering in the context of large eddy simulation (LES) is a mathematical operation intended to remove a range of small scales from the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations. Because the principal d
Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations
The Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS equations) are time-averagedequations of motion for fluid flow. The idea behind the equations is Reynolds decomposition, whereby an instantaneous qu
Reynolds stress equation model
Reynolds stress equation model (RSM), also referred to as second moment closures are the most complete classical turbulence model. In these models, the eddy-viscosity hypothesis is avoided and the ind
Detached eddy simulation
Detached eddy simulation (DES) is a modification of a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) model in which the model switches to a subgrid scale formulation in regions fine enough for large
K–omega turbulence model
In computational fluid dynamics, the k–omega (k–ω) turbulence model is a common two-equation turbulence model, that is used as an approximation for the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS
Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model
In physics, the Spalart–Allmaras model is a one-equation model that solves a modelled transport equation for the kinematic eddy turbulent viscosity. The Spalart–Allmaras model was designed specificall
Direct numerical simulation
A direct numerical simulation (DNS) is a simulation in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in which the Navier–Stokes equations are numerically solved without any turbulence model. This means that the