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High-entropy alloy

High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are alloys that are formed by mixing equal or relatively large proportions of (usually) five or more elements. Prior to the synthesis of these substances, typical metal allo

Maximum entropy thermodynamics

In physics, maximum entropy thermodynamics (colloquially, MaxEnt thermodynamics) views equilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics as inference processes. More specifically, MaxEnt applies in

Configuration entropy

In statistical mechanics, configuration entropy is the portion of a system's entropy that is related to discrete representative positions of its constituent particles. For example, it may refer to the

Entropy (order and disorder)

In thermodynamics, entropy is often associated with the amount of order or disorder in a thermodynamic system. This stems from Rudolf Clausius' 1862 assertion that any thermodynamic process always "ad

Isentropic process

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is both adiabatic and reversible. The work transfers of the system are frictionless, and there is no net transfer of

High-entropy-alloy nanoparticles

High-entropy-alloy nanoparticles (HEA-NPs) are nanoparticles having four or more elements alloyed in a single-phase solid solution structure. HEA-NPs possess a wide range of compositional library, dis

Entropy (classical thermodynamics)

In classical thermodynamics, entropy is a property of a thermodynamic system that expresses the direction or outcome of spontaneous changes in the system. The term was introduced by Rudolf Clausius in

Entropy (energy dispersal)

The interpretation of entropy as a measure of energy dispersal has been exercised against the background of the traditional view, introduced by Ludwig Boltzmann, of entropy as a quantitative measure o

Landauer's principle

Landauer's principle is a physical principle pertaining to the lower theoretical limit of energy consumption of computation. It holds that "any logically irreversible manipulation of information, such

Boltzmann's entropy formula

In statistical mechanics, Boltzmann's equation (also known as the Boltzmann–Planck equation) is a probability equation relating the entropy , also written as , of an ideal gas to the multiplicity (com

History of entropy

The concept of entropy developed in response to the observation that a certain amount of functional energy released from combustion reactions is always lost to dissipation or friction and is thus not

Entropy (statistical thermodynamics)

The concept entropy was first developed by German physicist Rudolf Clausius in the mid-nineteenth century as a thermodynamic property that predicts that certain spontaneous processes are irreversible

H-theorem

In classical statistical mechanics, the H-theorem, introduced by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1872, describes the tendency to decrease in the quantity H (defined below) in a nearly-ideal gas of molecules. As t

Entanglement distillation

Entanglement distillation (also called entanglement purification) is the transformation of N copies of an arbitrary entangled state into some number of approximately pure Bell pairs, using only local

Introduction to entropy

In thermodynamics, entropy is a numerical quantity that shows that many physical processes can go in only one direction in time. For example, you can pour cream into coffee and mix it, but you cannot

Tsallis entropy

In physics, the Tsallis entropy is a generalization of the standard Boltzmann–Gibbs entropy.

Entropy of fusion

In thermodynamics, the entropy of fusion is the increase in entropy when melting a solid substance. This is almost always positive since the degree of disorder increases in the transition from an orga

Entropy and life

Research concerning the relationship between the thermodynamic quantity entropy and the evolution of life began around the turn of the 20th century. In 1910, American historian Henry Adams printed and

Bekenstein bound

In physics, the Bekenstein bound (named after Jacob Bekenstein) is an upper limit on the thermodynamic entropy S, or Shannon entropy H, that can be contained within a given finite region of space whic

Ectropy

No description available.

Geometrical frustration

In condensed matter physics, the term geometrical frustration (or in short: frustration) refers to a phenomenon where atoms tend to stick to non-trivial positions or where, on a regular crystal lattic

Loop entropy

Loop entropy is the entropy lost upon bringing together two residues of a polymer within a prescribed distance. For a single loop, the entropy varies logarithmically with the number of residues in the

Nonextensive entropy

Entropy is considered to be an extensive property, i.e., that its value depends on the amount of material present. Constantino Tsallis has proposed a nonextensive entropy (Tsallis entropy), which is a

Entropy of mixing

In thermodynamics, the entropy of mixing is the increase in the total entropy when several initially separate systems of different composition, each in a thermodynamic state of internal equilibrium, a

Disgregation

In the history of thermodynamics, disgregation is an early formulation of the concept of entropy. It was defined in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as the magnitude of the degree in which the molecules of a b

Negentropy

In information theory and statistics, negentropy is used as a measure of distance to normality. The concept and phrase "negative entropy" was introduced by Erwin Schrödinger in his 1944 popular-scienc

Conformational entropy

In chemical thermodynamics, conformational entropy is the entropy associated with the number of conformations of a molecule. The concept is most commonly applied to biological macromolecules such as p

Entropy as an arrow of time

Entropy is one of the few quantities in the physical sciences that require a particular direction for time, sometimes called an arrow of time. As one goes "forward" in time, the second law of thermody

Homentropic flow

In fluid mechanics, a homentropic flow has uniform and constant entropy. It distinguishes itself from an isentropic or particle isentropic flow, where the entropy level of each fluid particle does not

Standard molar entropy

In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of pure substance at a standard state of pressure and any temperature of interest. These are often (but not necessarily) cho

Residual entropy

Residual entropy is the difference in entropy between a non-equilibrium state and crystal state of a substance close to absolute zero. This term is used in condensed matter physics to describe the ent

Depletion force

A depletion force is an effective attractive force that arises between large colloidal particles that are suspended in a dilute solution of depletants, which are smaller solutes that are preferentiall

Entropy in thermodynamics and information theory

The mathematical expressions for thermodynamic entropy in the statistical thermodynamics formulation established by Ludwig Boltzmann and J. Willard Gibbs in the 1870s are similar to the information en

Entropic explosion

An entropic explosion is an explosion in which the reactants undergo a large change in volume without releasing a large amount of heat. The chemical decomposition of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is a

Entropic force

In physics, an entropic force acting in a system is an emergent phenomenon resulting from the entire system's statistical tendency to increase its entropy, rather than from a particular underlying for

Heat death of the universe

The heat death of the universe (also known as the Big Chill or Big Freeze) is a hypothesis on the ultimate fate of the universe, which suggests the universe will evolve to a state of no thermodynamic

Isentropic nozzle flow

Isentropic nozzle flow describes the movement of a gas or fluid through a narrowing opening without an increase or decrease in entropy.

Sackur–Tetrode equation

The Sackur–Tetrode equation is an expression for the entropy of a monatomic ideal gas. It is named for Hugo Martin Tetrode (1895–1931) and Otto Sackur (1880–1914), who developed it independently as a

Entropy of vaporization

In thermodynamics, the entropy of vaporization is the increase in entropy upon vaporization of a liquid. This is always positive, since the degree of disorder increases in the transition from a liquid

Free entropy

A thermodynamic free entropy is an entropic thermodynamic potential analogous to the free energy. Also known as a Massieu, Planck, or Massieu–Planck potentials (or functions), or (rarely) free informa

Nucleate boiling

Nucleate boiling is a type of boiling that takes place when the surface temperature is hotter than the saturated fluid temperature by a certain amount but where the heat flux is below the critical hea

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