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False positive rate

In statistics, when performing multiple comparisons, a false positive ratio (also known as fall-out or false alarm ratio) is the probability of falsely rejecting the null hypothesis for a particular t

Coefficient of variation

In probability theory and statistics, the coefficient of variation (CV), also known as relative standard deviation (RSD), is a standardized measure of dispersion of a probability distribution or frequ

P4-metric

P4 metric enables performance evaluation of the binary classifier.It is calculated from precision, recall, specificity and NPV (negative predictive value).P4 is designed in similar way to F1 metric, h

Positive and negative predictive values

The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV respectively) are the proportions of positive and negative results in statistics and diagnostic tests that are true positive and true negative

Normalization (statistics)

In statistics and applications of statistics, normalization can have a range of meanings. In the simplest cases, normalization of ratings means adjusting values measured on different scales to a notio

Experimental event rate

In epidemiology and biostatistics, the experimental event rate (EER) is a measure of how often a particular statistical event (such as response to a drug, adverse event or death) occurs within the exp

Bayes factor

The Bayes factor is a ratio of two competing statistical models represented by their marginal likelihood, and is used to quantify the support for one model over the other. The models in questions can

Cramér's V

In statistics, Cramér's V (sometimes referred to as Cramér's phi and denoted as φc) is a measure of association between two nominal variables, giving a value between 0 and +1 (inclusive). It is based

Pseudo-R-squared

Pseudo-R-squared values are used when the outcome variable is nominal or ordinal such that the coefficient of determination R2 cannot be applied as a measure for goodness of fit. In linear regression,

T-statistic

In statistics, the t-statistic is the ratio of the departure of the estimated value of a parameter from its hypothesized value to its standard error. It is used in hypothesis testing via Student's t-t

Ratio distribution

A ratio distribution (also known as a quotient distribution) is a probability distribution constructed as the distribution of the ratio of random variables having two other known distributions.Given t

Standard score

In statistics, the standard score is the number of standard deviations by which the value of a raw score (i.e., an observed value or data point) is above or below the mean value of what is being obser

Standardized mortality ratio

In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to t

Attack rate

In epidemiology, the attack rate is the proportion of an at-risk population that contracts the disease during a specified time interval. It is used in hypothetical predictions and during actual outbre

Sortino ratio

The Sortino ratio measures the risk-adjusted return of an investment asset, portfolio, or strategy. It is a modification of the Sharpe ratio but penalizes only those returns falling below a user-speci

Lexis ratio

The Lexis ratio is used in statistics as a measure which seeks to evaluate differences between the statistical properties of random mechanisms where the outcome is two-valued — for example "success" o

Beta (finance)

In finance, the beta (β or market beta or beta coefficient) is a measure of how an individual asset moves (on average) when the overall stock market increases or decreases. Thus, beta is a useful meas

Index of dispersion

In probability theory and statistics, the index of dispersion, dispersion index, coefficient of dispersion, relative variance, or variance-to-mean ratio (VMR), like the coefficient of variation, is a

Hansen–Jagannathan bound

Hansen–Jagannathan bound is a theorem in financial economics that says that the ratio of the standard deviation of a stochastic discount factor to its mean exceeds the Sharpe ratio attained by any por

Variation ratio

The variation ratio is a simple measure of statistical dispersion in nominal distributions; it is the simplest measure of qualitative variation. It is defined as the proportion of cases which are not

Wilks' theorem

In statistics Wilks' theorem offers an asymptotic distribution of the log-likelihood ratio statistic, which can be used to produce confidence intervals for maximum-likelihood estimates or as a test st

Strikeout-to-walk ratio

In baseball statistics, strikeout-to-walk ratio (K/BB) is a measure of a pitcher's ability to control pitches, calculated as strikeouts divided by bases on balls. A hit by pitch is not counted statist

Variance inflation factor

In statistics, the variance inflation factor (VIF) is the ratio (quotient) of the variance of estimating some parameter in a model that includes multiple other terms (parameters) by the variance of a

Fano factor

In statistics, the Fano factor, like the coefficient of variation, is a measure of the dispersion of a probability distribution of a Fano noise. It is named after Ugo Fano, an Italian American physici

F-test

An F-test is any statistical test in which the test statistic has an F-distribution under the null hypothesis. It is most often used when comparing statistical models that have been fitted to a data s

Standardized moment

In probability theory and statistics, a standardized moment of a probability distribution is a moment (often a higher degree central moment) that is normalized, typically by a power of the standard de

Failure rate

Failure rate is the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails, expressed in failures per unit of time. It is usually denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda) and is often used in reli

Relative change and difference

In any quantitative science, the terms relative change and relative difference are used to compare two quantities while taking into account the "sizes" of the things being compared, i.e. dividing by a

Information gain ratio

In decision tree learning, Information gain ratio is a ratio of information gain to the intrinsic information. It was proposed by Ross Quinlan, to reduce a bias towards multi-valued attributes by taki

Likelihood-ratio test

In statistics, the likelihood-ratio test assesses the goodness of fit of two competing statistical models based on the ratio of their likelihoods, specifically one found by maximization over the entir

Goodman and Kruskal's lambda

In probability theory and statistics, Goodman & Kruskal's lambda is a measure of proportional reduction in error in cross tabulation analysis. For any sample with a nominal independent variable and de

Treynor ratio

The Treynor reward to volatility model (sometimes called the reward-to-volatility ratio or Treynor measure), named after Jack L. Treynor, is a measurement of the returns earned in excess of that which

Correlation ratio

In statistics, the correlation ratio is a measure of the curvilinear relationship between the statistical dispersion within individual categories and the dispersion across the whole population or samp

Hazard ratio

In survival analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) is the ratio of the hazard rates corresponding to the conditions characterised by two distinct levels of a treatment variable of interest. For example, in a

Ka/Ks ratio

In genetics, the Ka/Ks ratio, also known as ω or dN/dS ratio, is used to estimate the balance between neutral mutations, purifying selection and beneficial mutations acting on a set of homologous prot

Diagnostic odds ratio

In medical testing with binary classification, the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) is a measure of the effectiveness of a diagnostic test. It is defined as the ratio of the odds of the test being positive

Pearson correlation coefficient

In statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC, pronounced /ˈpɪərsən/) ― also known as Pearson's r, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC), the bivariate correlation, or c

Conditional probability

In probability theory, conditional probability is a measure of the probability of an event occurring, given that another event (by assumption, presumption, assertion or evidence) has already occurred.

Odds

Odds provide a measure of the likelihood of a particular outcome. They are calculated as the ratio of the number of events that produce that outcome to the number that do not. Odds are commonly used i

Polynomial and rational function modeling

In statistical modeling (especially process modeling), polynomial functions and rational functions are sometimes used as an empirical technique for curve fitting.

Quadrant count ratio

The quadrant count ratio (QCR) is a measure of the association between two quantitative variables. The QCR is not commonly used in the practice of statistics; rather, it is a useful tool in statistics

Relative index of inequality

The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes i

Sensitivity and specificity

Sensitivity and specificity mathematically describe the accuracy of a test which reports the presence or absence of a condition. Individuals for which the condition is satisfied are considered "positi

Sharpe ratio

In finance, the Sharpe ratio (also known as the Sharpe index, the Sharpe measure, and the reward-to-variability ratio) measures the performance of an investment such as a security or portfolio compare

Ground ball/fly ball ratio

In baseball statistics, ground ball-fly ball ratio (denoted by G/F or GB/FB) is a measure of:
* Frequency of batted ground balls in play versus fly balls in play to denote what kind of contact a batt

Studentized range

In statistics, the studentized range, denoted q, is the difference between the largest and smallest data in a sample normalized by the sample standard deviation.It is named after William Sealy Gosset

Signal-to-noise statistic

In mathematics the signal-to-noise statistic distance between two vectors a and b with mean values and and standard deviation and respectively is: In the case of Gaussian-distributed data and unbiased

Ratio estimator

The ratio estimator is a statistical parameter and is defined to be the ratio of means of two random variables. Ratio estimates are biased and corrections must be made when they are used in experiment

F-score

In statistical analysis of binary classification, the F-score or F-measure is a measure of a test's accuracy. It is calculated from the precision and recall of the test, where the precision is the num

Information ratio

The information ratio measures and compares the active return of an investment (e.g., a security or portfolio) compared to a benchmark index relative to the volatility of the active return (also known

Survival rate

Survival rate is a part of survival analysis. It is the proportion of people in a study or treatment group still alive at a given period of time after diagnosis. It is a method of describing prognosis

Coefficient of determination

In statistics, the coefficient of determination, denoted R2 or r2 and pronounced "R squared", is the proportion of the variation in the dependent variable that is predictable from the independent vari

Relative risk reduction

In epidemiology, the relative risk reduction (RRR) or efficacy is the relative decrease in the risk of an adverse event in the exposed group compared to an unexposed group. It is computed as , where i

Fraction of variance unexplained

In statistics, the fraction of variance unexplained (FVU) in the context of a regression task is the fraction of variance of the regressand (dependent variable) Y which cannot be explained, i.e., whic

Phi coefficient

In statistics, the phi coefficient (or mean square contingency coefficient and denoted by φ or rφ) is a for two binary variables. In machine learning, it is known as the Matthews correlation coefficie

Prevalence

In epidemiology, prevalence is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seatbelt use) at a specifi

Relative risk

The relative risk (RR) or risk ratio is the ratio of the probability of an outcome in an exposed group to the probability of an outcome in an unexposed group. Together with risk difference and odds ra

Rescaled range

The rescaled range is a statistical measure of the variability of a time series introduced by the British hydrologist Harold Edwin Hurst (1880–1978). Its purpose is to provide an assessment of how the

Sampling fraction

In sampling theory, the sampling fraction is the ratio of sample size to population size or, in the context of stratified sampling, the ratio of the sample size to the size of the stratum.The formula

Signal-to-noise ratio

Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. SNR is defined as the ratio of signal powe

Studentized residual

In statistics, a studentized residual is the quotient resulting from the division of a residual by an estimate of its standard deviation. It is a form of a Student's t-statistic, with the estimate of

Upside potential ratio

The upside-potential ratio is a measure of a return of an investment asset relative to the . The measurement allows a firm or individual to choose investments which have had relatively good upside per

Mills ratio

In probability theory, the Mills ratio (or Mills's ratio) of a continuous random variable is the function where is the probability density function, and is the complementary cumulative distribution fu

Response-rate ratio

Response-rate ratio is a measure of efficacy of therapy in clinical trials. It is defined as the proportion of improved patients in thetreatment group, divided by the proportion of improved patients i

Prevalence effect

In psychology, the prevalence effect is the phenomenon that one is more likely to miss (or fail to detect) a target with a low prevalence (or frequency) than a target with a high prevalence or frequen

Uncertainty coefficient

In statistics, the uncertainty coefficient, also called proficiency, entropy coefficient or Theil's U, is a measure of nominal association. It was first introduced by Henri Theil and is based on the c

Quartile coefficient of dispersion

In statistics, the quartile coefficient of dispersion is a descriptive statistic which measures dispersion and which is used to make comparisons within and between data sets. Since it is based on quan

Studentization

In statistics, Studentization, named after William Sealy Gosset, who wrote under the pseudonym Student, is the adjustment consisting of division of a first-degree statistic derived from a sample, by a

Outliers ratio

In objective video quality assessment, the outliers ratio (OR) is a measure of the performance of an objective video quality metric. It is the ratio of "false" scores given by the objective metric to

F-test of equality of variances

In statistics, an F-test of equality of variances is a test for the null hypothesis that two normal populations have the same variance. Notionally, any F-test can be regarded as a comparison of two va

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