Berkson's paradox, also known as Berkson's bias, collider bias, or Berkson's fallacy, is a result in conditional probability and statistics which is often found to be counterintuitive, and hence a ver
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Abelson's paradox is an applied statistics paradox identified by Robert P. Abelson. The paradox pertains to a possible paradoxical relationship between the magnitude of the r2 (i.e., coefficient of de
Stein's example
In decision theory and estimation theory, Stein's example (also known as Stein's phenomenon or Stein's paradox) is the observation that when three or more parameters are estimated simultaneously, ther
Proof of Stein's example
Stein's example is an important result in decision theory which can be stated as The ordinary decision rule for estimating the mean of a multivariate Gaussian distribution is inadmissible under mean s
The accuracy paradox is the paradoxical finding that accuracy is not a good metric for predictive models when classifying in predictive analytics. This is because a simple model may have a high level
Simpson's paradox is a phenomenon in probability and statistics in which a trend appears in several groups of data but disappears or reverses when the groups are combined. This result is often encount
In statistical analysis, Freedman's paradox, named after David Freedman, is a problem in model selection whereby predictor variables with no relationship to the dependent variable can pass tests of si
The friendship paradox is the phenomenon first observed by the sociologist Scott L. Feld in 1991 that most people have fewer friends than their friends have, on average. It can be explained as a form
In statistics, Lord's paradox raises the issue of when it is appropriate to control for baseline status. In three papers, Frederic M. Lord gave examples when statisticians could reach different conclu
Will Rogers phenomenon
The Will Rogers phenomenon, also called the Okie Paradox, is when moving an observation from one group to another increases the average of both groups. It is named after a joke by the comedian Will Ro
Gambler's fallacy
The gambler's fallacy, also known as the Monte Carlo fallacy or the fallacy of the maturity of chances, is the incorrect belief that, if a particular event occurs more frequently than normal during th