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Alon–Boppana bound

In spectral graph theory, the Alon–Boppana bound provides a lower bound on the second-largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a -regular graph, meaning a graph in which every vertex has degree .

Spectral abscissa

In mathematics, the spectral abscissa of a matrix or a bounded linear operator is the greatest real part of the matrix's spectrum (its set of eigenvalues). It is sometimes denoted . As a transformatio

Hearing the shape of a drum

To hear the shape of a drum is to infer information about the shape of the drumhead from the sound it makes, i.e., from the list of overtones, via the use of mathematical theory. "Can One Hear the Sha

Limiting amplitude principle

In mathematics, the limiting amplitude principle is a concept from operator theory and scattering theory used for choosing a particular solution to the Helmholtz equation. The choice is made by consid

Starlike tree

In the area of mathematics known as graph theory, a tree is said to be starlike if it has exactly one vertex of degree greater than 2. This high-degree vertex is the root and a starlike tree is obtain

Riesz projector

In mathematics, or more specifically in spectral theory, the Riesz projector is the projector onto the eigenspace corresponding to a particular eigenvalue of an operator (or, more generally, a project

Projection-valued measure

In mathematics, particularly in functional analysis, a projection-valued measure (PVM) is a function defined on certain subsets of a fixed set and whose values are self-adjoint projections on a fixed

Kuznetsov trace formula

In analytic number theory, the Kuznetsov trace formula is an extension of the Petersson trace formula. The Kuznetsov or relative trace formula connects Kloosterman sums at a deep level with the spectr

Pseudospectrum

In mathematics, the pseudospectrum of an operator is a set containing the spectrum of the operator and the numbers that are "almost" eigenvalues. Knowledge of the pseudospectrum can be particularly us

Fractional Chebyshev collocation method

The fractional Chebyshev collocation (FCC) method is an efficient spectral method for solving a system of linear fractional-order differential equations (FDEs) with discrete delays. The FCC method ove

Krein–Rutman theorem

In functional analysis, the Krein–Rutman theorem is a generalisation of the Perron–Frobenius theorem to infinite-dimensional Banach spaces. It was proved by Krein and in 1948.

Spectral theorem

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix can be diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matri

Weyl law

In mathematics, especially spectral theory, Weyl's law describes the asymptotic behavior of eigenvalues of the Laplace–Beltrami operator. This description was discovered in 1911 (in the case) by Herma

Numerical range

In the mathematical field of linear algebra and convex analysis, the numerical range or field of values of a complex matrix A is the set where denotes the conjugate transpose of the vector . The numer

Ramanujan graph

In the mathematical field of spectral graph theory, a Ramanujan graph is a regular graph whose spectral gap is almost as large as possible (see extremal graph theory). Such graphs are excellent spectr

Almost Mathieu operator

In mathematical physics, the almost Mathieu operator arises in the study of the quantum Hall effect. It is given by acting as a self-adjoint operator on the Hilbert space . Here are parameters. In pur

Polyakov formula

In differential geometry and mathematical physics (especially string theory), the Polyakov formula expresses the conformal variation of the zeta functional determinant of a Riemannian manifold. The co

Heat kernel

In the mathematical study of heat conduction and diffusion, a heat kernel is the fundamental solution to the heat equation on a specified domain with appropriate boundary conditions. It is also one of

Isospectral

In mathematics, two linear operators are called isospectral or cospectral if they have the same spectrum. Roughly speaking, they are supposed to have the same sets of eigenvalues, when those are count

Spectrum of a C*-algebra

In mathematics, the spectrum of a C*-algebra or dual of a C*-algebra A, denoted Â, is the set of unitary equivalence classes of irreducible *-representations of A. A *-representation π of A on a Hilbe

Proto-value function

In applied mathematics, proto-value functions (PVFs) are automatically learned basis functions that are useful in approximating task-specific value functions, providing a compact representation of the

Transfer operator

In mathematics, the transfer operator encodes information about an iterated map and is frequently used to study the behavior of dynamical systems, statistical mechanics, quantum chaos and fractals. In

Spectral gap

In mathematics, the spectral gap is the difference between the moduli of the two largest eigenvalues of a matrix or operator; alternately, it is sometimes taken as the smallest non-zero eigenvalue. Va

Multi-spectral phase coherence

Multi-spectral phase coherence (MSPC) is a generalized cross-frequency coupling metric introduced by Yang and colleagues in 2016. MSPC can be used to quantify nonlinear phase coupling between a set of

Normal eigenvalue

In mathematics, specifically in spectral theory, an eigenvalue of a closed linear operator is called normal if the space admits a decomposition into a direct sum of a finite-dimensional generalized ei

Decomposition of spectrum (functional analysis)

The spectrum of a linear operator that operates on a Banach space (a fundamental concept of functional analysis) consists of all scalars such that the operator does not have a bounded inverse on . The

Dirichlet eigenvalue

In mathematics, the Dirichlet eigenvalues are the fundamental modes of vibration of an idealized drum with a given shape. The problem of whether one can hear the shape of a drum is: given the Dirichle

Rayleigh–Faber–Krahn inequality

In spectral geometry, the Rayleigh–Faber–Krahn inequality, named after its conjecturer, Lord Rayleigh, and two individuals who independently proved the conjecture, G. Faber and Edgar Krahn, is an ineq

Bauer–Fike theorem

In mathematics, the Bauer–Fike theorem is a standard result in the perturbation theory of the eigenvalue of a complex-valued diagonalizable matrix. In its substance, it states an absolute upper bound

Spectral theory of compact operators

In functional analysis, compact operators are linear operators on Banach spaces that map bounded sets to relatively compact sets. In the case of a Hilbert space H, the compact operators are the closur

Lax pair

In mathematics, in the theory of integrable systems, a Lax pair is a pair of time-dependent matrices or operators that satisfy a corresponding differential equation, called the Lax equation. Lax pairs

Selberg zeta function

The Selberg zeta-function was introduced by Atle Selberg. It is analogous to the famous Riemann zeta function where is the set of prime numbers. The Selberg zeta-function uses the lengths of simple cl

Spectrum (functional analysis)

In mathematics, particularly in functional analysis, the spectrum of a bounded linear operator (or, more generally, an unbounded linear operator) is a generalisation of the set of eigenvalues of a mat

Sturm–Liouville theory

In mathematics and its applications, classical Sturm–Liouville theory is the theory of real second-order linear ordinary differential equations of the form: for given coefficient functions p(x), q(x),

Schur–Horn theorem

In mathematics, particularly linear algebra, the Schur–Horn theorem, named after Issai Schur and Alfred Horn, characterizes the diagonal of a Hermitian matrix with given eigenvalues. It has inspired i

Superstrong approximation

Superstrong approximation is a generalisation of strong approximation in algebraic groups G, to provide spectral gap results. The spectrum in question is that of the Laplacian matrix associated to a f

Discrete spectrum (mathematics)

In mathematics, specifically in spectral theory, a discrete spectrum of a closed linear operator is defined as the set of isolated points of its spectrum such that the rank of the corresponding Riesz

Spectral theory of ordinary differential equations

In mathematics, the spectral theory of ordinary differential equations is the part of spectral theory concerned with the determination of the spectrum and eigenfunction expansion associated with a lin

Spectral radius

In mathematics, the spectral radius of a square matrix is the maximum of the absolute values of its eigenvalues. More generally, the spectral radius of a bounded linear operator is the supremum of the

Spectral graph theory

In mathematics, spectral graph theory is the study of the properties of a graph in relationship to the characteristic polynomial, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors of matrices associated with the graph, s

Dirac spectrum

In mathematics, a Dirac spectrum, named after Paul Dirac, is the spectrum of eigenvalues of a Dirac operator on a Riemannian manifold with a spin structure. The isospectral problem for the Dirac spect

Transform theory

In mathematics, transform theory is the study of transforms, which relate a function in one domain to another function in a second domain. The essence of transform theory is that by a suitable choice

Min-max theorem

In linear algebra and functional analysis, the min-max theorem, or variational theorem, or Courant–Fischer–Weyl min-max principle, is a result that gives a variational characterization of eigenvalues

Spectral asymmetry

In mathematics and physics, the spectral asymmetry is the asymmetry in the distribution of the spectrum of eigenvalues of an operator. In mathematics, the spectral asymmetry arises in the study of ell

Spectral geometry

Spectral geometry is a field in mathematics which concerns relationships between geometric structures of manifolds and spectra of canonically defined differential operators. The case of the Laplace–Be

Limiting absorption principle

In mathematics, the limiting absorption principle (LAP) is a concept from operator theory and scattering theory that consists of choosing the "correct" resolvent of a linear operator at the essential

Essential spectrum

In mathematics, the essential spectrum of a bounded operator (or, more generally, of a densely defined closed linear operator) is a certain subset of its spectrum, defined by a condition of the type t

Rigged Hilbert space

In mathematics, a rigged Hilbert space (Gelfand triple, nested Hilbert space, equipped Hilbert space) is a construction designed to link the distribution and square-integrable aspects of functional an

Spectral theory

In mathematics, spectral theory is an inclusive term for theories extending the eigenvector and eigenvalue theory of a single square matrix to a much broader theory of the structure of operators in a

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