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Nyquist plot

No description available.

Flow graph (mathematics)

A flow graph is a form of digraph associated with a set of linear algebraic or differential equations: "A signal flow graph is a network of nodes (or points) interconnected by directed branches, repre

Return ratio

The return ratio of a dependent source in a linear electrical circuit is the negative of the ratio of the current (voltage) returned to the site of the dependent source to the current (voltage) of a r

Signal processing

Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analyzing, modifying and synthesizing signals, such as sound, images, and scientific measurements. Signal processing techniques

Signal averaging

Signal averaging is a signal processing technique applied in the time domain, intended to increase the strength of a signal relative to noise that is obscuring it. By averaging a set of replicate meas

Kaczmarz method

The Kaczmarz method or Kaczmarz's algorithm is an iterative algorithm for solving linear equation systems . It was first discovered by the Polish mathematician Stefan Kaczmarz, and was rediscovered in

Multitaper

In signal processing, multitaper is a spectral density estimation technique developed by David J. Thomson. It can estimate the power spectrum SX of a stationary ergodic finite-variance random process

Comb filter

In signal processing, a comb filter is a filter implemented by adding a delayed version of a signal to itself, causing constructive and destructive interference. The frequency response of a comb filte

Quantization (signal processing)

Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set, often with a

Asymptotic gain model

The asymptotic gain model (also known as the Rosenstark method) is a representation of the gain of negative feedback amplifiers given by the asymptotic gain relation: where is the return ratio with th

Fast folding algorithm

In signal processing, the fast folding algorithm (Staelin, 1969) is an efficient algorithm for the detection of approximately-periodic events within time series data. It computes superpositions of the

Downsampling (signal processing)

In digital signal processing, downsampling, compression, and decimation are terms associated with the process of resampling in a multi-rate digital signal processing system. Both downsampling and deci

Undersampling

In signal processing, undersampling or bandpass sampling is a technique where one samples a bandpass-filtered signal at a sample rate below its Nyquist rate (twice the upper cutoff frequency), but is

Dynamic range

Dynamic range (abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR) is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume. It is often used in the context of signals, like sound and light. I

Digital storage oscilloscope

A digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) is an oscilloscope which stores and analyses the input signal digitally rather than using analog techniques. It is now the most common type of oscilloscope in use

Ergodic process

In physics, statistics, econometrics and signal processing, a stochastic process is said to be in an ergodic regime if an observable's ensemble average equals the time average. In this regime, any col

Gradient pattern analysis

Gradient pattern analysis (GPA) is a geometric computing method for characterizing geometrical bilateral symmetry breaking of an ensemble of symmetric vectors regularly distributed in a square lattice

Near–far problem

The near–far problem or hearability problem is the effect of a strong signal from a near signal source in making it hard for a receiver to hear a weaker signal from a further source due to adjacent-ch

Sensitivity index

The sensitivity index or discriminability index or detectability index is a dimensionless statistic used in signal detection theory. A higher index indicates that the signal can be more readily detect

Hexagonal Efficient Coordinate System

The Hexagonal Efficient Coordinate System (HECS), formerly known as Array Set Addressing (ASA), is a coordinate system for hexagonal grids that allows hexagonally sampled images to be efficiently stor

Multiplicative noise

In signal processing, the term multiplicative noise refers to an unwanted random signal that gets multiplied into some relevant signal during capture, transmission, or other processing. An important e

Generalized signal averaging

Within signal processing, in many cases only one image with noise is available, and averaging is then realized in a local neighbourhood. Results are acceptable if the noise is smaller in size than the

Hilbert spectroscopy

Hilbert Spectroscopy uses Hilbert transforms to analyze broad spectrum signals from gigahertz to terahertz frequency radio. One suggested use is to quickly analyze liquids inside airport passenger lug

Spectral concentration problem

The spectral concentration problem in Fourier analysis refers to finding a time sequence of a given length whose discrete Fourier transform is maximally localized on a given frequency interval, as mea

Biot–Tolstoy–Medwin diffraction model

In applied mathematics, the Biot–Tolstoy–Medwin (BTM) diffraction model describes edge diffraction. Unlike the uniform theory of diffraction (UTD), BTM does not make the high frequency assumption (in

Bit banging

In computer engineering and electrical engineering, bit banging is a "term of art" for any method of data transmission that employs software as a substitute for dedicated hardware to generate transmit

Gating signal

A gating signal is a digital signal or pulse (sometimes called a "trigger") that provides a time window so that a particular event or signal from among many will be selected and others will be elimina

Transform domain

No description available.

Quasi-analog signal

In telecommunication, a quasi-analog signal is a digital signal that has been converted to a form suitable for transmission over a specified analog channel. The specification of the analog channel sho

Gating (telecommunication)

In telecommunication, the term gating has the following meanings: 1.
* The process of selecting only those portions of a wave between specified time intervals or between specified amplitude limits. 2

Data acquisition

Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real-world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer.

Half-band filter

In digital signal processing, half-band filters are widely used for their efficiency in multi-rate applications. A half-band filter is a low-pass filter that reduces the maximum bandwidth of sampled d

Multiscale geometric analysis

Multiscale geometric analysis or geometric multiscale analysis is an emerging area of high-dimensional signal processing and data analysis.

Field-programmable analog array

A field-programmable analog array (FPAA) is an integrated circuit device containing computational analog blocks (CAB) and interconnects between these blocks offering field-programmability. Unlike thei

Time-varied gain

Time varied gain (TVG) is signal compensation that is applied by the receiver electronics through analog or digital signal processing. The desired result is that targets of the same size produce echoe

Multidimensional empirical mode decomposition

In signal processing, multidimensional empirical mode decomposition (multidimensional EMD) is an extension of the one-dimensional (1-D) EMD algorithm to a signal encompassing multiple dimensions. The

Itakura–Saito distance

The Itakura–Saito distance (or Itakura–Saito divergence) is a measure of the difference between an original spectrum and an approximation of that spectrum. Although it is not a perceptual measure, it

Cross-covariance

In probability and statistics, given two stochastic processes and , the cross-covariance is a function that gives the covariance of one process with the other at pairs of time points. With the usual n

Restricted isometry property

In linear algebra, the restricted isometry property (RIP) characterizes matrices which are nearly orthonormal, at least when operating on sparse vectors. The concept was introduced by Emmanuel Candès

Sombrero function

A sombrero function (sometimes called besinc function or jinc function) is the 2-dimensional polar coordinate analog of the sinc function, and is so-called because it is shaped like a sombrero hat. Th

Babel function

The Babel function (also known as cumulative coherence) measures the maximum total coherence between a fixed and a collection of other atoms in a . The Babel function was conceived of in the context o

Ringing artifacts

In signal processing, particularly digital image processing, ringing artifacts are artifacts that appear as spurious signals near sharp transitions in a signal. Visually, they appear as bands or "ghos

Phase vocoder

A phase vocoder is a type of vocoder-purposed algorithm which can interpolate information present in the frequency and time domains of audio signals by using phase information extracted from a frequen

Mercury Systems

Mercury Systems, Inc. is a technology company serving the aerospace and defense industry. It designs, develops and manufactures open architecture computer hardware and software products, including sec

Quadrature filter

In signal processing, a quadrature filter is the analytic representation of the impulse response of a real-valued filter: If the quadrature filter is applied to a signal , the result is which implies

Cross-correlation matrix

The cross-correlation matrix of two random vectors is a matrix containing as elements the cross-correlations of all pairs of elements of the random vectors. The cross-correlation matrix is used in var

Copulas in signal processing

A copula is a mathematical function that provides a relationship between marginal distributions of random variables and their joint distributions. Copulas are important because it represents a depende

Hilbert transform

In mathematics and in signal processing, the Hilbert transform is a specific linear operator that takes a function, u(t) of a real variable and produces another function of a real variable H(u)(t). Th

Norator

In electronics, a norator is a theoretical linear, time-invariant one-port which can have an arbitrary current and voltage between its terminals. A norator represents a controlled voltage or current s

Overlap–add method

In signal processing, the overlap–add method is an efficient way to evaluate the discrete convolution of a very long signal with a finite impulse response (FIR) filter : where h[m] = 0 for m outside t

Time-invariant system

In control theory, a time-invariant (TIV) system has a time-dependent system function that is not a direct function of time. Such systems are regarded as a class of systems in the field of system anal

Integration over time

No description available.

Wiener–Khinchin theorem

In applied mathematics, the Wiener–Khinchin theorem or Wiener–Khintchine theorem, also known as the Wiener–Khinchin–Einstein theorem or the Khinchin–Kolmogorov theorem, states that the autocorrelation

Reconstruction from zero crossings

The problem of reconstruction from zero crossings can be stated as: given the zero crossings of a continuous signal, is it possible to reconstruct the signal (to within a constant factor)? Worded diff

WSDMA

WSDMA (Wideband Space Division Multiple Access) is a high bandwidth channel access method, developed for multi-transceiver systems such as active array antennas. WSDMA is a beamforming technique suita

Recurrence quantification analysis

Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) is a method of nonlinear data analysis (cf. chaos theory) for the investigation of dynamical systems. It quantifies the number and duration of recurrences of a

Multidimensional signal processing

In signal processing, multidimensional signal processing covers all signal processing done using multidimensional signals and systems. While multidimensional signal processing is a subset of signal pr

Square-law detector

In electronic signal processing, a square law detector is a device that produces an output proportional to the square of some input. For example, in demodulating radio signals, a semiconductor diode c

Detection theory

Detection theory or signal detection theory is a means to measure the ability to differentiate between information-bearing patterns (called stimulus in living organisms, signal in machines) and random

Automatic link establishment

Automatic Link Establishment, commonly known as ALE, is the worldwide de facto standard for digitally initiating and sustaining HF radio communications. ALE is a feature in an HF communications radio

Beamforming

Beamforming or spatial filtering is a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception. This is achieved by combining elements in an antenna array in

Angle of arrival

The angle of arrival (AoA) of a signal is the direction from which the signal (e.g. radio, optical or acoustic) is received.

Spectrum analyzer

A spectrum analyzer measures the magnitude of an input signal versus frequency within the full frequency range of the instrument. The primary use is to measure the power of the spectrum of known and u

Voicemeeter

Voicemeeter is a virtual mixing console and sound card running on the Windows operating system. It allows the processing of any audio signal - whether its source is physical (microphone) or virtual (a

Spectral correlation density

The spectral correlation density (SCD), sometimes also called the cyclic spectral density or spectral correlation function, is a function that describes the cross-spectral density of all pairs of freq

Autocorrelator

A real time interferometric autocorrelator is an electronic tool used to examine the autocorrelation of, among other things, optical beam intensity and spectral components through examination of varia

Equivalent rectangular bandwidth

The equivalent rectangular bandwidth or ERB is a measure used in psychoacoustics, which gives an approximation to the bandwidths of the filters in human hearing, using the unrealistic but convenient s

Periodic summation

In signal processing, any periodic function with period P can be represented by a summation of an infinite number of instances of an aperiodic function , that are offset by integer multiples of P. Thi

Wavelet packet decomposition

Originally known as optimal subband tree structuring (SB-TS), also called wavelet packet decomposition (WPD)(sometimes known as just wavelet packets or subband tree), is a wavelet transform where the

Blackman's theorem

Blackman's theorem is a general procedure for calculating the change in an impedance due to feedback in a circuit. It was published by Ralph Beebe Blackman in 1943, was connected to signal-flow analys

Pulse-density modulation

Pulse-density modulation, or PDM, is a form of modulation used to represent an analog signal with a binary signal. In a PDM signal, specific amplitude values are not encoded into codewords of pulses o

Variance Adaptive Quantization

Variance Adaptive Quantization (VAQ) is a video encoding algorithm that was first introduced in the open source video encoder x264. According to Xvid Builds FAQ: "It's an algorithm that tries to optim

Wavelet transform

In mathematics, a wavelet series is a representation of a square-integrable (real- or complex-valued) function by a certain orthonormal series generated by a wavelet. This article provides a formal, m

Analog signal processing

Analog signal processing is a type of signal processing conducted on continuous analog signals by some analog means (as opposed to the discrete digital signal processing where the signal processing is

Low-pass filter

A low-pass filter is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a selected cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. The exact frequency

Signal regeneration

In telecommunications, signal regeneration is signal processing that restores a signal, recovering its original characteristics. The signal may be electrical, as in a repeater on a T-carrier line, or

Step response

The step response of a system in a given initial state consists of the time evolution of its outputs when its control inputs are Heaviside step functions. In electronic engineering and control theory,

Turbo equalizer

In digital communications, a turbo equalizer is a type of receiver used to receive a message corrupted by a communication channel with intersymbol interference (ISI). It approaches the performance of

Number theoretic Hilbert transform

The number theoretic Hilbert transform is an extension of the discrete Hilbert transform to integers modulo a prime . The transformation operator is a circulant matrix. The number theoretic transform

Log Gabor filter

In signal processing it is useful to simultaneously analyze the space and frequency characteristics of a signal. While the Fourier transform gives the frequency information of the signal, it is not lo

First-order hold

First-order hold (FOH) is a mathematical model of the practical reconstruction of sampled signals that could be done by a conventional digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and an analog circuit called an

Pulse-width modulation

Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a method of reducing the average power delivered by an electrical signal, by effectively chopping it up into discrete parts. The av

Noiselet

Noiselets are a family of functions which are related to wavelets, analogously to the way that the Fourier basis is related to a time-domain signal. In other words, if a signal is compact in the wavel

Scanning mobility particle sizer

A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) is an analytical instrument that measures the size and number concentration of aerosol particles with diameters from 2.5 nm to 1000 nm. They employ a continuo

Pulse shaping

In electronics and telecommunications, pulse shaping is the process of changing the waveform of transmitted pulses. Its purpose is to make the transmitted signal better suited to its purpose or the co

Alpha beta filter

An alpha beta filter (also called alpha-beta filter, f-g filter or g-h filter) is a simplified form of observer for estimation, data smoothing and control applications. It is closely related to Kalman

Adaptive beamformer

An adaptive beamformer is a system that performs adaptive spatial signal processing with an array of transmitters or receivers. The signals are combined in a manner which increases the signal strength

Beta encoder

A beta encoder is an analog-to-digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real

Filter (signal processing)

In signal processing, a filter is a device or process that removes some unwanted components or features from a signal. Filtering is a class of signal processing, the defining feature of filters being

Gain compression

Gain compression is a reduction in differential or slope gain caused by nonlinearity of the transfer function of the amplifying device. This nonlinearity may be caused by heat due to power dissipation

Mutual coherence (linear algebra)

In linear algebra, the coherence or mutual coherence of a matrix A is defined as the maximum absolute value of the cross-correlations between the columns of A. Formally, let be the columns of the matr

Masreliez's theorem

Masreliez theorem describes a recursive algorithmwithin the technology of extended Kalman filter, named after the Swedish-American physicist , who is its author. The algorithm estimates the state of a

Phase margin

In electronic amplifiers, the phase margin (PM) is the difference between the phase lag φ (< 0) and -180°, for an amplifier's output signal (relative to its input) at zero dB gain - i.e. unity gain, o

Wigner distribution function

The Wigner distribution function (WDF) is used in signal processing as a transform in time-frequency analysis. The WDF was first proposed in physics to account for quantum corrections to classical sta

Estimation theory

Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured empirical data that has a random component. The parameters describe an underlying phys

Delay equalization

In signal processing, delay equalization corresponds to adjusting the relative phases of different frequencies to achieve a constant group delay, using by adding an all-pass filter in series with an u

Reconstruction from projections

The problem of reconstructing a multidimensional signal from its projection is uniquely multidimensional, having no 1-D counterpart. It has applications that range from computer-aided tomography to ge

Generalized pencil-of-function method

Generalized pencil-of-function method (GPOF), also known as matrix pencil method, is a signal processing technique for estimating a signal or extracting information with complex exponentials. Being si

Bandwidth expansion

Bandwidth expansion is a technique for widening the bandwidth or the resonances in an LPC filter. This is done by moving all the poles towards the origin by a constant factor . The bandwidth-expanded

Time reversal signal processing

Time Reversal Signal Processing has three main uses: creating an optimal carrier signal for communication, reconstructing a source event, and focusing high-energy waves to a point in space. A Time Rev

Frequency response

In signal processing and electronics, the frequency response of a system is the quantitative measure of the magnitude and phase of the output as a function of input frequency. The frequency response i

Homomorphic filtering

Homomorphic filtering is a generalized technique for signal and image processing, involving a nonlinear mapping to a different domain in which linear filter techniques are applied, followed by mapping

Mel-frequency cepstrum

In sound processing, the mel-frequency cepstrum (MFC) is a representation of the short-term power spectrum of a sound, based on a linear cosine transform of a log power spectrum on a nonlinear mel sca

Low Frequency Analyzer and Recorder (LOFAR)

Two closely related terms, Low Frequency Analyzer and Recorder and Low Frequency Analysis and Recording bearing the acronym LOFAR, deal with the equipment and process respectively for presenting a vis

BIBO stability

In signal processing, specifically control theory, bounded-input, bounded-output (BIBO) stability is a form of stability for signals and systems that take inputs. If a system is BIBO stable, then the

Transfer function matrix

In control system theory, and various branches of engineering, a transfer function matrix, or just transfer matrix is a generalisation of the transfer functions of single-input single-output (SISO) sy

Frame (linear algebra)

In linear algebra, a frame of an inner product space is a generalization of a basis of a vector space to sets that may be linearly dependent. In the terminology of signal processing, a frame provides

Pulse width

The pulse width is a measure of the elapsed time between the leading and trailing edges of a single pulse of energy. The measure is typically used with electrical signals and is widely used in the fie

Recurrence period density entropy

Recurrence period density entropy (RPDE) is a method, in the fields of dynamical systems, stochastic processes, and time series analysis, for determining the periodicity, or repetitiveness of a signal

Kernel principal component analysis

In the field of multivariate statistics, kernel principal component analysis (kernel PCA)is an extension of principal component analysis (PCA) using techniques of kernel methods. Using a kernel, the o

Signal

In signal processing, a signal is a function that conveys information about a phenomenon. Any quantity that can vary over space or time can be used as a signal to share messages between observers. The

Microwave analog signal processing

Real-time Analog Signal Processing (R-ASP), as an alternative to DSP-based processing, might be defined as the manipulation of signals in their pristine analog form and in real time to realize specifi

Frequency band

A frequency band is an interval in the frequency domain, delimited by a lower frequency and an upper frequency. The term may refer to a radio band or an interval of some other spectrum. The frequency

Echo removal

Echo removal is the process of removing echo and reverberation artifacts from audio signals. The reverberation is typically modeled as the convolution of a (sometimes time-varying) impulse response wi

Non-linear multi-dimensional signal processing

In signal processing, nonlinear multidimensional signal processing (NMSP) covers all signal processing using nonlinear multidimensional signals and systems. Nonlinear multidimensional signal processin

Median filter

The median filter is a non-linear digital filtering technique, often used to remove noise from an image or signal. Such noise reduction is a typical pre-processing step to improve the results of later

Digital room correction

Digital room correction (or DRC) is a process in the field of acoustics where digital filters designed to ameliorate unfavorable effects of a room's acoustics are applied to the input of a sound repro

Modified Wigner distribution function

A Modified Wigner distribution function is a variation of the Wigner distribution function (WD) with reduced or removed cross-terms. The Wigner distribution (WD) was first proposed for corrections to

Zero-forcing precoding

Zero-forcing (or null-steering) precoding is a method of spatial signal processing by which a multiple antenna transmitter can null the multiuser interference in a multi-user MIMO wireless communicati

Recurrence plot

In descriptive statistics and chaos theory, a recurrence plot (RP) is a plot showing, for each moment in time, the times at which the state of a dynamical system returns to the previous state at ,i.e.

Pulse duration

In signal processing and telecommunication, pulse duration is the interval between the time, during the first transition, that the amplitude of the pulse reaches a specified fraction (level) of its fi

Routh–Hurwitz stability criterion

In control system theory, the Routh–Hurwitz stability criterion is a mathematical test that is a necessary and sufficient condition for the stability of a linear time-invariant (LTI) dynamical system

Sinc filter

In signal processing, a sinc filter is an idealized filter that removes all frequency components above a given cutoff frequency, without affecting lower frequencies, and has linear phase response. The

Signal subspace

In signal processing, signal subspace methods are empirical linear methods for dimensionality reduction and noise reduction. These approaches have attracted significant interest and investigation rece

Sinc function

In mathematics, physics and engineering, the sinc function, denoted by sinc(x), has two forms, normalized and unnormalized. In mathematics, the historical unnormalized sinc function is defined for x ≠

Optomyography

Optomyography (OMG) was proposed in 2015 as a technique that could be used to monitor muscular activity. It is possible to use OMG for the same applications where Electromyography (EMG) and Mechanomyo

Speech processing

Speech processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of signals. The signals are usually processed in a digital representation, so speech processing can be regarded as a special

Essential bandwidth

No description available.

Sub-band coding

In signal processing, sub-band coding (SBC) is any form of transform coding that breaks a signal into a number of different frequency bands, typically by using a fast Fourier transform, and encodes ea

Deconvolution

In mathematics, deconvolution is the operation inverse to convolution. Both operations are used in signal processing and image processing. For example, it may be possible to recover the original signa

Orthogonal signal correction

Orthogonal Signal Correction (OSC) is a spectral preprocessing technique that removes variation from a data matrix X that is orthogonal to the response matrix Y. OSC was introduced by researchers at t

Direction of arrival

In signal processing, direction of arrival (DOA) denotes the direction from which usually a propagating wave arrives at a point, where usually a set of sensors are located. These set of sensors forms

Radio-frequency sweep

Radio frequency sweep or frequency sweep or RF sweep apply to scanning a radio frequency band for detecting signals being transmitted there. This is implemented using a radio receiver having a tunable

Baudhayana sequences

No description available.

Decorrelation

Decorrelation is a general term for any process that is used to reduce autocorrelation within a signal, or cross-correlation within a set of signals, while preserving other aspects of the signal. A fr

Hilbert spectral analysis

Hilbert spectral analysis is a signal analysis method applying the Hilbert transform to compute the instantaneous frequency of signals according to After performing the Hilbert transform on each signa

Whittaker–Shannon interpolation formula

The Whittaker–Shannon interpolation formula or sinc interpolation is a method to construct a continuous-time bandlimited function from a sequence of real numbers. The formula dates back to the works o

Ambiguity function

In pulsed radar and sonar signal processing, an ambiguity function is a two-dimensional function of propagation delay and Doppler frequency , . It represents the distortion of a returned pulse due to

Energy (signal processing)

In signal processing, the energy of a continuous-time signal x(t) is defined as the area under the squared magnitude of the considered signal i.e., mathematically Unit of will be (unit of signal)2. An

Waveform shaping

Waveform shaping in electronics is the modification of the shape of an electronic waveform. It is in close connection with waveform diversity and waveform design, which are extensively studied in sign

Fluctuation loss

Fluctuation loss is an effect seen in radar systems as the target object moves or changes its orientation relative to the radar system. It was extensively studied during the 1950s by Peter Swerling, w

Chirp compression

The chirp pulse compression process transforms a long duration frequency-coded pulse into a narrow pulse of greatly increased amplitude. It is a technique used in radar and sonar systems because it is

Cross-correlation

In signal processing, cross-correlation is a measure of similarity of two series as a function of the displacement of one relative to the other. This is also known as a sliding dot product or sliding

Blind equalization

Blind equalization is a digital signal processing technique in which the transmitted signal is inferred (equalized) from the received signal, while making use only of the transmitted signal statistics

Algebraic signal processing

Algebraic signal processing (ASP) is an emerging area of theoretical signal processing (SP). In the algebraic theory of signal processing, a set of filters is treated as an (abstract) algebra, a set o

Comb generator

A comb generator is a signal generator that produces multiple harmonics of its input signal. The appearance of the output at the spectrum analyzer screen, resembling teeth of a comb, gave the device i

Chirp spectrum

The spectrum of a chirp pulse describes its characteristics in terms of its frequency components. This frequency-domain representation is an alternative to the more familiar time-domain waveform, and

EEG analysis

EEG analysis is exploiting mathematical signal analysis methods and computer technology to extract information from electroencephalography (EEG) signals. The targets of EEG analysis are to help resear

Error concealment

Error concealment is a technique used in signal processing that aims to minimize the deterioration of signals caused by missing data, called packet loss. A signal is a message sent from a transmitter

Prony's method

Prony analysis (Prony's method) was developed by Gaspard Riche de Prony in 1795. However, practical use of the method awaited the digital computer. Similar to the Fourier transform, Prony's method ext

Negative feedback

Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whethe

Clipping (signal processing)

Clipping is a form of distortion that limits a signal once it exceeds a threshold. Clipping may occur when a signal is recorded by a sensor that has constraints on the range of data it can measure, it

MUSHRA

MUSHRA stands for MUltiple Stimuli with Hidden Reference and Anchor and is a methodology for conducting a codec listening test to evaluate the perceived quality of the output from lossy audio compress

Mojette Transform

The Mojette Transform is an application of discrete geometry. More specifically, it is a discrete and exact version of the Radon transform, thus a projection operator. The IRCCyN laboratory - UMR CNRS

Icophone

The icophone is an instrument of speech synthesis conceived by in 1964 and used for synthesizing the French language. The two first icophones were made in the laboratory of physical mechanics of Saint

Regressive discrete Fourier series

In applied mathematics, the regressive discrete Fourier series (RDFS) is a generalization of the discrete Fourier transform where the Fourier series coefficients are computed in a least squares sense

Total variation denoising

In signal processing, particularly image processing, total variation denoising, also known as total variation regularization or total variation filtering, is a noise removal process (filter). It is ba

Hilbert spectrum

The Hilbert spectrum (sometimes referred to as the Hilbert amplitude spectrum), named after David Hilbert, is a statistical tool that can help in distinguishing among a mixture of moving signals. The

Vector signal analyzer

A vector signal analyzer is an instrument that measures the magnitude and phase of the input signal at a single frequency within the IF bandwidth of the instrument. The primary use is to make in-chann

Argument (complex analysis)

In mathematics (particularly in complex analysis), the argument of a complex number z, denoted arg(z), is the angle between the positive real axis and the line joining the origin and z, represented as

Blind deconvolution

In electrical engineering and applied mathematics, blind deconvolution is deconvolution without explicit knowledge of the impulse response function used in the convolution. This is usually achieved by

Order tracking (signal processing)

In rotordynamics, order tracking is a family of signal processing tools aimed at transforming a measured signal from time domain to angular (or order) domain. These techniques are applied to asynchron

Aliasing

In signal processing and related disciplines, aliasing is an effect that causes different signals to become indistinguishable (or aliases of one another) when sampled. It also often refers to the dist

Tone-Lok

Tone-Lok Effects are guitar effects pedals from a (now discontinued) product line, introduced by Ibanez in 1999. In contrast with other guitar pedals, they included a "Lok" feature, engaged for each a

Analytic signal

In mathematics and signal processing, an analytic signal is a complex-valued function that has no negative frequency components. The real and imaginary parts of an analytic signal are real-valued func

Phase response

In signal processing, phase response is the relationship between the phase of a sinusoidal input and the output signal passing through any device that accepts input and produces an output signal, such

Financial signal processing

Financial signal processing is a branch of signal processing technologies which applies to signals within financial markets. They are often used by quantitative analysts to make best estimation of the

Stochastic resonance

Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon in which a signal that is normally too weak to be detected by a sensor, can be boosted by adding white noise to the signal, which contains a wide spectrum of

Video super-resolution

Video Super-Resolution (VSR) is the process of generating high-resolution video frames from the given low-resolution ones. Unlike single image super-resolution (SISR), the main goal is not only to res

Pulse compression

Pulse compression is a signal processing technique commonly used by radar, sonar and echography to increase the range resolution as well as the signal to noise ratio. This is achieved by modulating th

Signal compression

Signal compression is the use of various techniques to increase the quality or quantity of signal parameters transmitted through a given telecommunications channel. Types of signal compression include

Shearlet

In applied mathematical analysis, shearlets are a multiscale framework which allows efficient encoding of anisotropic features in multivariate problem classes. Originally, shearlets were introduced in

Random pulse width modulation

Random pulse width modulation (RPWM) is a modulation technique introduced for mitigating electromagnetic interference (EMI) of power converters by spreading the energy of the noise signal over a wider

Least-squares spectral analysis

Least-squares spectral analysis (LSSA) is a method of estimating a frequency spectrum, based on a least squares fit of sinusoids to data samples, similar to Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis, the mos

Multiplex baseband

In telecommunication, the term multiplex baseband has the following meanings: 1.
* In frequency-division multiplexing, the frequency band occupied by the aggregate of the signals in the line intercon

Orban (audio processing)

Orban is an international company making audio processors for radio, television and Internet broadcasters. It has been operating since founder Bob Orban sold his first product in 1967. The company was

Overlap–save method

In signal processing, overlap–save is the traditional name for an efficient way to evaluate the discrete convolution between a very long signal and a finite impulse response (FIR) filter : where h[m]

Emphasis (telecommunications)

Typically, prior to some process, such as transmission over cable, or recording to phonograph record or tape, the input frequency range most susceptible to noise is boosted. This is referred to as "pr

Code

In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form, sometimes shortened or secret, for co

Group delay and phase delay

In signal processing, group delay and phase delay are delay times experienced by a signal's various when the signal passes through a system that is linear time-invariant (LTI), such as a microphone, c

Fibre multi-object spectrograph

Fibre multi-object spectrograph (FMOS) is facility instrument for the Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The instrument consists of a complex fibre-optic positioning system mounted at the prime

Bode plot

In electrical engineering and control theory, a Bode plot /ˈboʊdi/ is a graph of the frequency response of a system. It is usually a combination of a Bode magnitude plot, expressing the magnitude (usu

Nullator

In electronics, a nullator is a theoretical linear, time-invariant one-port defined as having zero current and voltage across its terminals. Nullators are strange in the sense that they simultaneously

Reverberation mapping

Reverberation mapping (or Echo mapping) is an astrophysical technique for measuring the structure of the broad-line region (BLR) around a supermassive black hole at the center of an active galaxy, and

Signal-flow graph

A signal-flow graph or signal-flowgraph (SFG), invented by Claude Shannon, but often called a Mason graph after Samuel Jefferson Mason who coined the term, is a specialized flow graph, a directed grap

Signal chain

Signal chain, or signal-processing chain is a term used in signal processing and mixed-signal system design to describe a series of signal-conditioning electronic components that receive input (data a

Factorial code

Most real world data sets consist of data vectors whose individual components are not statistically independent. In other words, knowing the value of an element will provide information about the valu

Signal reconstruction

In signal processing, reconstruction usually means the determination of an original continuous signal from a sequence of equally spaced samples. This article takes a generalized abstract mathematical

Spectral density

The power spectrum of a time series describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal. According to Fourier analysis, any physical signal can be decomposed into a num

Geophysical MASINT

Geophysical MASINT is a branch of Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) that involves phenomena transmitted through the earth (ground, water, atmosphere) and manmade structures including emi

Constant amplitude zero autocorrelation waveform

In signal processing, a Constant Amplitude Zero AutoCorrelation waveform (CAZAC) is a periodic complex-valued signal with modulus one and out-of-phase periodic (cyclic) autocorrelations equal to zero.

Spectrogram

A spectrogram is a visual representation of the spectrum of frequencies of a signal as it varies with time. When applied to an audio signal, spectrograms are sometimes called sonographs, voiceprints,

Heterodyne

A heterodyne is a signal frequency that is created by combining or mixing two other frequencies using a signal processing technique called heterodyning, which was invented by Canadian inventor-enginee

Log-spectral distance

The log-spectral distance (LSD), also referred to as log-spectral distortion or root mean square log-spectral distance, is a distance measure(expressed in dB) between two spectra. The log-spectral dis

Adjacent channel power ratio

Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR) is ratio between the total power of adjacent channel (intermodulation signal) to the main channel's power (useful signal).

Zero-order hold

The zero-order hold (ZOH) is a mathematical model of the practical signal reconstruction done by a conventional digital-to-analog converter (DAC). That is, it describes the effect of converting a disc

Half time (electronics)

In signal processing, the half time is the time it takes for the amplitude of a pulse to drop from 100% to 50% of its peak value.
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Process gain

In a spread-spectrum system, the process gain (or "processing gain") is the ratio of the spread (or RF) bandwidth to the unspread (or baseband) bandwidth. It is usually expressed in decibels (dB). For

Beat detection

In signal analysis, beat detection is using computer software or computer hardware to detect the beat of a musical score. There are many methods available and beat detection is always a tradeoff betwe

Video line selector

A video line selector is an electronic circuit or device for picking a line from an analog video signal. The input of the circuit is connected to an analog video source, the output triggers an oscillo

Eigenmoments

EigenMoments is a set of orthogonal, noise robust, invariant to rotation, scaling and translation and distribution sensitive moments. Their application can be found in signal processing and computer v

Stationary process

In mathematics and statistics, a stationary process (or a strict/strictly stationary process or strong/strongly stationary process) is a stochastic process whose unconditional joint probability distri

Pulse (signal processing)

A pulse in signal processing is a rapid, transient change in the amplitude of a signal from a baseline value to a higher or lower value, followed by a rapid return to the baseline value.

Lanczos resampling

Lanczos filtering and Lanczos resampling are two applications of a mathematical formula. It can be used as a low-pass filter or used to smoothly interpolate the value of a digital signal between its s

Noise (signal processing)

In signal processing, noise is a general term for unwanted (and, in general, unknown) modifications that a signal may suffer during capture, storage, transmission, processing, or conversion. Sometimes

Zero-crossing rate

The zero-crossing rate (ZCR) is the rate at which a signal changes from positive to zero to negative or from negative to zero to positive. Its value has been widely used in both speech recognition and

Kernel-phase

Kernel-phases are observable quantities used in high resolution astronomical imaging used for superresolution image creation. It can be seen as a generalization of closure phases for redundant arrays.

Bilinear time–frequency distribution

Bilinear time–frequency distributions, or quadratic time–frequency distributions, arise in a sub-field of signal analysis and signal processing called time–frequency signal processing, and, in the sta

Baseband

In telecommunications and signal processing, baseband is the range of frequencies occupied by a signal that has not been modulated to higher frequencies. Baseband signals typically originate from tran

Linear canonical transformation

In Hamiltonian mechanics, the linear canonical transformation (LCT) is a family of integral transforms that generalizes many classical transforms. It has 4 parameters and 1 constraint, so it is a 3-di

Derivation of the Routh array

The Routh array is a tabular method permitting one to establish the stability of a system using only the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial. Central to the field of control systems design,

Wavefront coding

In optics and signal processing, wavefront coding refers to the use of a phase modulating element in conjunction with deconvolution to extend the depth of field of a digital imaging system such as a v

Array factor

An array is simply a group of objects, and the array factor is a measure of how much a specific characteristic changes because of the grouping. This phenomenon is observed when antennas are grouped to

Optical spectrometer

An optical spectrometer (spectrophotometer, spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used i

Recursive filter

In signal processing, a recursive filter is a type of filter which re-uses one or more of its outputs as an input. This feedback typically results in an unending impulse response (commonly referred to

Zero crossing

A zero-crossing is a point where the sign of a mathematical function changes (e.g. from positive to negative), represented by an intercept of the axis (zero value) in the graph of the function. It is

Directional symmetry (time series)

In statistical analysis of time series and in signal processing, directional symmetry is a statistical measure of a model's performance in predicting the direction of change, positive or negative, of

Matching pursuit

Matching pursuit (MP) is a sparse approximation algorithm which finds the "best matching" projections of multidimensional data onto the span of an over-complete (i.e., redundant) dictionary . The basi

Nominal level

Nominal level is the operating level at which an electronic signal processing device is designed to operate. The electronic circuits that make up such equipment are limited in the maximum signal they

Spectral edge frequency

No description available.

Multiresolution Fourier transform

Multiresolution Fourier Transform is an integral fourier transform that represents a specific wavelet-like transform with a fully scalable modulated window, but not all possible translations.

Chronux

Chronux is an open-source software package developed for the loading, visualization and analysis of a variety of modalities / formats of neurobiological time series data. Usage of this tool enables ne

Signal transfer function

The signal transfer function (SiTF) is a measure of the signal output versus the signal input of a system such as an infrared system or sensor. There are many general applications of the SiTF. Specifi

Wavelet

A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation with an amplitude that begins at zero, increases or decreases, and then returns to zero one or more times. Wavelets are termed a "brief oscillation". A taxonomy of

Upsampling

In digital signal processing, upsampling, expansion, and interpolation are terms associated with the process of resampling in a multi-rate digital signal processing system. Upsampling can be synonymou

Hilbert–Huang transform

The Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) is a way to decompose a signal into so-called intrinsic mode functions (IMF) along with a trend, and obtain instantaneous frequency data. It is designed to work well

Nyquist stability criterion

In control theory and stability theory, the Nyquist stability criterion or Strecker–Nyquist stability criterion, independently discovered by the German electrical engineer at Siemens in 1930 and the S

Common spatial pattern

Common spatial pattern (CSP) is a mathematical procedure used in signal processing for separating a multivariate signal into additive subcomponents which have maximum differences in variance between t

Dirac comb

In mathematics, a Dirac comb (also known as shah function, impulse train or sampling function) is a periodic function with the formula for some given period . Here t is a real variable and the sum ext

Instantaneous phase and frequency

Instantaneous phase and frequency are important concepts in signal processing that occur in the context of the representation and analysis of time-varying functions. The instantaneous phase (also know

Blind signal separation

No description available.

Autoregressive model

In statistics, econometrics and signal processing, an autoregressive (AR) model is a representation of a type of random process; as such, it is used to describe certain time-varying processes in natur

Steered-Response Power Phase Transform

Steered-Response Power Phase Transform (SRP-PHAT) is a popular algorithm for acoustic source localization, well known for its robust performance in adverse acoustic environments. The algorithm can be

Wideband audio

Wideband audio, also known as wideband voice or HD voice, is high definition voice quality for telephony audio, contrasted with standard digital telephony "toll quality". It extends the frequency rang

Carrier frequency offset

Carrier frequency offset (CFO) is one of many non-ideal conditions that may affect in baseband receiver design. In designing a baseband receiver, we should notice not only the degradation invoked by n

Linear time-invariant system

In system analysis, among other fields of study, a linear time-invariant (LTI) system is a system that produces an output signal from any input signal subject to the constraints of linearity and time-

WSSUS model

The WSSUS (Wide-Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering) model provides a statistical description of the transmission behavior of wireless channels. "Wide-sense stationarity" means the second-order m

Head-related transfer function

A head-related transfer function (HRTF), also known as anatomical transfer function (ATF), is a response that characterizes how an ear receives a sound from a point in space. As sound strikes the list

Sampling (signal processing)

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal. A common example is the conversion of a sound wave to a sequence of "samples".A sample is a value

Dependent component analysis

Dependent component analysis (DCA) is a blind signal separation (BSS) method and an extension of Independent component analysis (ICA). ICA is the separating of mixed signals to individual signals with

Autocorrelation

Autocorrelation, sometimes known as serial correlation in the discrete time case, is the correlation of a signal with a delayed copy of itself as a function of delay. Informally, it is the similarity

SAMV (algorithm)

SAMV (iterative sparse asymptotic minimum variance) is a parameter-free superresolution algorithm for the linear inverse problem in spectral estimation, direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and tomog

Washout filter

In signal processing, a washout filter is a stable high pass filter with zero static gain. This leads to the filtering of lower frequency inputs signals, leaving the steady state output unaffected by

Super-resolution imaging

Super-resolution imaging (SR) is a class of techniques that enhance (increase) the resolution of an imaging system. In optical SR the diffraction limit of systems is transcended, while in geometrical

Signal analyzer

A signal analyzer is an instrument that measures the magnitude and phase of the input signal at a single frequency within the IF bandwidth of the instrument. It employs digital techniques to extract u

Cognitive hearing science

Cognitive hearing science is an interdisciplinary science field concerned with the physiological and cognitive basis of hearing and its interplay with signal processing in hearing aids. The field incl

Time-to-digital converter

In electronic instrumentation and signal processing, a time-to-digital converter (TDC) is a device for recognizing events and providing a digital representation of the time they occurred. For example,

Eb/N0

In digital communication or data transmission, (energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) is a normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measure, also known as the "SNR per bit". It is especi

Sonic artifact

In sound and music production, sonic artifact, or simply artifact, refers to sonic material that is accidental or unwanted, resulting from the editing or manipulation of a sound.

Pole–zero plot

In mathematics, signal processing and control theory, a pole–zero plot is a graphical representation of a rational transfer function in the complex plane which helps to convey certain properties of th

Radio spectrum scope

The radio spectrum scope (also radio panoramic receiver, panoramic adapter, pan receiver, pan adapter, panadapter, panoramic radio spectroscope, panoramoscope, panalyzor and band scope) was invented b

Photon noise

Photon noise is the randomness in signal associated with photons arriving at a detector. For a simple black body emitting on an absorber, the noise-equivalent power is given by where is the Planck con

Transmission curve

The transmission curve or transmission characteristic is the mathematical function or graph that describes the transmission fraction of an optical or electronic filter as a function of frequency or wa

Equalization (communications)

In telecommunication, equalization is the reversal of distortion incurred by a signal transmitted through a channel. Equalizers are used to render the frequency response—for instance of a telephone li

Discrete system

In theoretical computer science, a discrete system is a system with a countable number of states. Discrete systems may be contrasted with continuous systems, which may also be called analog systems. A

Coherence (signal processing)

In signal processing, the coherence is a statistic that can be used to examine the relation between two signals or data sets. It is commonly used to estimate the power transfer between input and outpu

In-phase and quadrature components

In electrical engineering, a sinusoid with angle modulation can be decomposed into, or synthesized from, two amplitude-modulated sinusoids that are offset in phase by one-quarter cycle (90 degrees or

Digital down converter

In digital signal processing, a digital down-converter (DDC) converts a digitized, band-limited signal to a lower frequency signal at a lower sampling rate in order to simplify the subsequent radio st

Cepstrum

In Fourier analysis, the cepstrum (/ˈkɛpstrʌm, ˈsɛp-, -strəm/; plural cepstra, adjective cepstral) is the result of computing the inverse Fourier transform (IFT) of the logarithm of the estimated sign

Pairwise error probability

Pairwise error probability is the error probability that for a transmitted signal its corresponding but distorted version will be received. This type of probability is called ″pair-wise error probabil

Autocorrelation technique

The autocorrelation technique is a method for estimating the dominating frequency in a complex signal, as well as its variance. Specifically, it calculates the first two moments of the power spectrum,

Apodization

In signal processing, apodization (from Greek "removing the foot") is the modification of the shape of a mathematical function. The function may represent an electrical signal, an optical transmission

Causal filter

In signal processing, a causal filter is a linear and time-invariant causal system. The word causal indicates that the filter output depends only on past and present inputs. A filter whose output also

Pre-emphasis

No description available.

Poisson wavelet

In mathematics, in functional analysis, several different wavelets are known by the name Poisson wavelet. In one context, the term "Poisson wavelet" is used to denote a family of wavelets labeled by t

Block transform

Wavelet packet bases are designed by dividing the frequency axis in intervals of varying sizes. These bases are particularly well adapted to decomposing signals that have different behavior in differe

Triple correlation

The triple correlation of an ordinary function on the real line is the integral of the product of that function with two independently shifted copies of itself: The Fourier transform of triple correla

Complementary sequences

In applied mathematics, complementary sequences (CS) are pairs of sequences with the useful property that their out-of-phase aperiodic autocorrelation coefficients sum to zero. Binary complementary se

Audio leveler

An audio leveler performs an audio process similar to compression, which is used to reduce the dynamic range of a signal, so that the quietest portion of the signal is loud enough to hear and the loud

Bandwidth (signal processing)

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies. It is typically measured in hertz, and depending on context, may specifically refer to passband

Free convolution

Free convolution is the free probability analog of the classical notion of convolution of probability measures. Due to the non-commutative nature of free probability theory, one has to talk separately

Nullor

A nullor is a theoretical two-port network consisting of a nullator at its input and a norator at its output. Nullors represent an ideal amplifier, having infinite current, voltage, transconductance a

Passthrough

In signal processing, a passthrough is a logic gate that enables a signal to "pass through" unaltered, sometimes with little alteration. Sometimes the concept of a "passthrough" can also involve daisy

Short-time Fourier transform

The short-time Fourier transform (STFT), is a Fourier-related transform used to determine the sinusoidal frequency and phase content of local sections of a signal as it changes over time. In practice,

Signaling Compression

For data compression, Signaling compression, or SigComp, is a compression method designed especially for compression of text-based communication data as SIP or RTSP. SigComp had originally been define

Chirp

A chirp is a signal in which the frequency increases (up-chirp) or decreases (down-chirp) with time. In some sources, the term chirp is used interchangeably with sweep signal. It is commonly applied t

Time–frequency analysis

In signal processing, time–frequency analysis comprises those techniques that study a signal in both the time and frequency domains simultaneously, using various time–frequency representations. Rather

Audio signal processing

Audio signal processing is a subfield of signal processing that is concerned with the electronic manipulation of audio signals. Audio signals are electronic representations of sound waves—longitudinal

Rasta filtering

RASTA-filtering and Mean Subtraction was introduced to support (PLP) preprocessing. It uses bandpass filtering in the . Rasta filtering then removes slow channel variations. It has also been applied t

Cross-recurrence quantification

Cross-recurrence quantification (CRQ) is a that quantifies how similarly two observed data series unfold over time. CRQ produces measures reflecting coordination, such as how often two data series hav

Hann function

The Hann function is named after the Austrian meteorologist Julius von Hann. It is a window function used to perform Hann smoothing. The function, with length and amplitude is given by: For digital si

Spark (mathematics)

In mathematics, more specifically in linear algebra, the spark of a matrix is the smallest integer such that there exists a set of columns in which are linearly dependent. If all the columns are linea

Nichols plot

The Nichols plot is a plot used in signal processing and control design, named after American engineer Nathaniel B. Nichols.

Constant fraction discriminator

A constant fraction discriminator (CFD) is an electronic signal processing device, designed to mimic the mathematical operation of finding a maximum of a pulse by finding the zero of its slope. Some s

Tomographic reconstruction

Tomographic reconstruction is a type of multidimensional inverse problem where the challenge is to yield an estimate of a specific system from a finite number of projections. The mathematical basis fo

Higher-order sinusoidal input describing function

The higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions (HOSIDF) were first introduced by dr. ir. P.W.J.M. Nuij. The HOSIDFs are an extension of the sinusoidal input describing function which describe

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