In mathematics, a sober space is a topological space X such that every (nonempty) irreducible closed subset of X is the closure of exactly one point of X: that is, every irreducible closed subset has
In mathematics, a paracompact space is a topological space in which every open cover has an open refinement that is locally finite. These spaces were introduced by . Every compact space is paracompact
In topology, Urysohn's lemma is a lemma that states that a topological space is normal if and only if any two disjoint closed subsets can be separated by a continuous function. Urysohn's lemma is comm
A semiregular space is a topological space whose regular open sets (sets that equal the interiors of their closures) form a base for the topology.
Urysohn and completely Hausdorff spaces
In topology, a discipline within mathematics, an Urysohn space, or T2½ space, is a topological space in which any two distinct points can be separated by closed neighborhoods. A completely Hausdorff s
In topology and related fields of mathematics, a topological space X is called a regular space if every closed subset C of X and a point p not contained in C admit non-overlapping open neighborhoods.
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space X is a T0 space or Kolmogorov space (named after Andrey Kolmogorov) if for every pair of distinct points of X, at least one of them
History of the separation axioms
The history of the separation axioms in general topology has been convoluted, with many meanings competing for the same terms and many terms competing for the same concept.
In the mathematical field of general topology, a Dowker space is a topological space that is T4 but not countably paracompact. They are named after Clifford Hugh Dowker. The non-trivial task of provid
In topology, two points of a topological space X are topologically indistinguishable if they have exactly the same neighborhoods. That is, if x and y are points in X, and Nx is the set of all neighbor
In topology and related branches of mathematics, Tychonoff spaces and completely regular spaces are kinds of topological spaces. These conditions are examples of separation axioms. A Tychonoff space r
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a normal space is a topological space X that satisfies Axiom T4: every two disjoint closed sets of X have disjoint open neighborhoods. A normal Hausdor
In topology and related fields of mathematics, there are several restrictions that one often makes on the kinds of topological spaces that one wishes to consider. Some of these restrictions are given
Collectionwise normal space
In mathematics, a topological space is called collectionwise normal if for every discrete family Fi (i ∈ I) of closed subsets of there exists a pairwise disjoint family of open sets Ui (i ∈ I), such t
Monotonically normal space
In mathematics, specifically in the field of topology, a monotonically normal space is a particular kind of normal space, defined in terms of a monotone normality operator. It satisfies some interesti
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a T1 space is a topological space in which, for every pair of distinct points, each has a neighborhood not containing the other point. An R0 space is o
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space (/ˈhaʊsdɔːrf/ HOWS-dorf, /ˈhaʊzdɔːrf/ HOWZ-dorf), separated space or T2 space is a topological space where for any two distinct point