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Stock sampling

Stock sampling is sampling people in a certain state at the time of the survey. This is in contrast to flow sampling, where the relationship of interest deals with duration or survival analysis. In st

Acceptable quality limit

The acceptable quality limit (AQL) is the worst tolerable process average (mean) in percentage or ratio that is still considered acceptable; that is, it is at an acceptable quality level. Closely rela

Expander walk sampling

In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, the expander walk sampling theorem intuitively states that sampling vertices in an expander graph by doing relatively short random walk can simulate sam

Selective recruitment

Selective recruitment is an observed effect in traffic safety. When safety belt laws are passed, belt wearing rates increase, but casualties decline by smaller percentages than estimated in a simple c

Census

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring, recording and calculating information about the members of a given population. This term is used mostly in connection with national population an

Healthy user bias

The healthy user bias or healthy worker bias is a bias that can damage the validity of epidemiologic studies testing the efficacy of particular therapies or interventions. Specifically, it is a sampli

Scale analysis (statistics)

In statistics, scale analysis is a set of methods to analyze survey data, in which responses to questions are combined to measure a latent variable. These items can be dichotomous (e.g. yes/no, agree/

Effective sample size

No description available.

Stratified sampling

In statistics, stratified sampling is a method of sampling from a population which can be partitioned into subpopulations. In statistical surveys, when subpopulations within an overall population vary

Rock paper scissors

Rock paper scissors (also known by other orderings of the three items, with "rock" sometimes being called "stone," or as Rochambeau, roshambo, or ro-sham-bo) is a hand game originating from China, usu

Balanced repeated replication

Balanced repeated replication is a statistical technique for estimating the sampling variability of a statistic obtained by stratified sampling.

Sufficient similarity

Sufficient similarity is a 20th-century para-legal concept used in the chemical industry for toxicological studies. The term was first employed in a restricted sense to assess surrogacy of chemical mi

Failure bias

Failure bias is the logical error of concentrating on the people or things that failed to make it past some selection process and overlooking those that did, typically because of their lack of visibil

Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence for a proposition is evidence, i.e. what supports or counters this proposition, that is constituted by or accessible to sense experience or experimental procedure. Empirical evidenc

Sampling probability

In statistics, in the theory relating to sampling from finite populations, the sampling probability (also known as inclusion probability) of an element or member of the population, is its probability

Coverage error

Coverage error is a type of non-sampling error that occurs when there is not a one-to-one correspondence between the target population and the sampling frame from which a sample is drawn. This can bia

Acquiescence bias

Acquiescence bias, also known as agreement bias, is a category of response bias common to survey research in which respondents have a tendency to select a positive response option or indicate a positi

Unmatched count

In psychology and social research, unmatched count, or item count, is a technique to improve, through anonymity, the number of true answers to possibly embarrassing or self-incriminating questions. It

Gy's sampling theory

Gy's sampling theory is a theory about the sampling of materials, developed by Pierre Gy from the 1950s to beginning 2000s in articles and books including:
* (1960) Sampling nomogram
* (1979) Sampli

Civic lottery

A civic lottery, a popular term for the contemporary use of sortition or allotment, is a lottery-based method for selecting citizens for public service or office. It is based on the premise that citiz

Recall bias

In epidemiological research, recall bias is a systematic error caused by differences in the accuracy or completeness of the recollections retrieved ("recalled") by study participants regarding events

Sampling frame

In statistics, a sampling frame is the source material or device from which a sample is drawn. It is a list of all those within a population who can be sampled, and may include individuals, households

Acceptance sampling

Acceptance sampling uses statistical sampling to determine whether to accept or reject a production lot of material. It has been a common quality control technique used in industry. It is usually done

Whipple's index

Whipple's index (or index of concentration), invented by American demographer George Chandler Whipple (1866–1924), is a method to measure the tendency for individuals to inaccurately report their actu

Margin of error

The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in the results of a survey. The larger the margin of error, the less confidence one should have that a poll result wou

Heckman correction

The Heckman correction is a statistical technique to correct bias from non-randomly selected samples or otherwise incidentally truncated dependent variables, a pervasive issue in quantitative social s

Sampling bias

In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population have a lower or higher sampling probability than others. It results in

Stratified randomization

In statistics, stratified randomization is a method of sampling which first stratifies the whole study population into subgroups with same attributes or characteristics, known as strata, then followed

Measuring attractiveness by a categorical-based evaluation technique (MACBETH)

Measuring attractiveness through a categorical-based evaluation technique (MACBETH) is a multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method that evaluates options against multiple criteria. MACBETH was

Opinion poll

An opinion poll, often simply referred to as a survey or a poll (although strictly a poll is an actual election) is a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample. Opinion polls ar

Variables sampling plan

In statistics, a variables sampling plan is an acceptance sampling technique. Plans for variables are intended for quality characteristics that are measured on a continuous scale. This plan requires t

Flow sampling

In statistics, in flow sampling, as opposed to stock sampling, observations are collected as they enter the particular state of interest during a particular interval. When dealing with duration data (

Lottery machine

A lottery machine is the machine used to draw the winning numbers for a lottery. Early lotteries were done by drawing numbers, or winning tickets, from a container. In the UK, numbers of winning Premi

Item tree analysis

Item tree analysis (ITA) is a data analytical method which allows constructing ahierarchical structure on the items of a questionnaire or test from observed responsepatterns. Assume that we have a que

Inherent bias

The phrase "inherent bias" refers to the effect of underlying factors or assumptions that skew viewpoints of a subject under discussion. There are multiple formal definitions of "inherent bias" which

Sampling risk

Sampling risk is one of the many types of risks an auditor may face when performing the necessary procedure of audit sampling. Audit sampling exists because of the impractical and costly effects of ex

Survivorship bias

Survivorship bias or survival bias is the logical error of concentrating on entities that passed a selection process while overlooking those that did not. This can lead to incorrect conclusions becaus

Sampling design

In the theory of finite population sampling, a sampling design specifies for every possible sample its probability of being drawn.

Selection bias

Selection bias is the bias introduced by the selection of individuals, groups, or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby failing to ensure that the sample o

Coin flipping

Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air and checking which side is showing when it lands, in order to choose between two alternatives, heads or tai

Sample size determination

Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to include in a statistical sample. The sample size is an important feature of any empirical study in which th

Sortition

In governance, sortition (also known as selection by lottery, selection by lot, allotment, demarchy, stochocracy, aleatoric democracy, democratic lottery, and lottocracy) is the selection of political

Infrastructure bias

In economics and social policy, infrastructure bias is the influence of the location and availability of pre-existing infrastructure, such as roads and telecommunications facilities, on social and eco

Oversampling and undersampling in data analysis

Within statistics, Oversampling and undersampling in data analysis are techniques used to adjust the class distribution of a data set (i.e. the ratio between the different classes/categories represent

NQuery Sample Size Software

nQuery is a clinical trial design platform used for the design and monitoring of adaptive, group sequential and fixed sample size trials. It is most commonly used by biostatisticians to calculate samp

Imperfect induction

The imperfect induction is the process of inferring from a sample of a group to what is characteristic of the whole group.

Replication (statistics)

In engineering, science, and statistics, replication is the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. ASTM, in standard E1847, de

Self-selection bias

In statistics, self-selection bias arises in any situation in which individuals select themselves into a group, causing a biased sample with nonprobability sampling. It is commonly used to describe si

Correct sampling

During sampling of granular materials (whether airborne, suspended in liquid, aerosol, or aggregated), correct sampling is defined in Gy's sampling theory as a sampling scenario in which all particles

Sampling error

In statistics, sampling errors are incurred when the statistical characteristics of a population are estimated from a subset, or sample, of that population. Since the sample does not include all membe

Lot quality assurance sampling

Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) is a random sampling methodology, originally developed in the 1920s as a method of quality control in industrial production. Compared to similar sampling techniqu

Horvitz–Thompson estimator

In statistics, the Horvitz–Thompson estimator, named after Daniel G. Horvitz and Donovan J. Thompson, is a method for estimating the total and mean of a in a stratified sample. Inverse probability wei

Judgment sample

Judgment sample, or Expert sample, is a type of non-random sample that is selected based on the opinion of an expert. Results obtained from a judgment sample are subject to some degree of bias, due to

Sampling (statistics)

In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics o

Sampling fraction

In sampling theory, the sampling fraction is the ratio of sample size to population size or, in the context of stratified sampling, the ratio of the sample size to the size of the stratum.The formula

Prior-independent mechanism

A Prior-independent mechanism (PIM) is a mechanism in which the designer knows that the agents' valuations are drawn from some probability distribution, but does not know the distribution. A typical a

Microdata (statistics)

In the study of survey and census data, microdata is information at the level of individual respondents. For instance, a national census might collect age, home address, educational level, employment

Sampling distribution

In statistics, a sampling distribution or finite-sample distribution is the probability distribution of a given random-sample-based statistic. If an arbitrarily large number of samples, each involving

Horsengoggle

Horsengoggle (also known as horse-and-goggle and horse 'n' goggle and hossengoggle) is a method of selecting a random person from a group. Unlike some other methods, such as rock paper scissors, one o

Strong and weak sampling

Strong and weak sampling are two sampling approach in Statistics, and are popular in computational cognitive science and language learning. In strong sampling, it is assumed that the data are intentio

Multi-attribute global inference of quality

Multi-attribute global inference of quality (MAGIQ) is a multi-criteria decision analysis technique. MAGIQ is based on a hierarchical decomposition of comparison attributes and rating assignment using

Odds and evens (hand game)

Odds and evens is a simple game of chance and hand game, involving two people simultaneously revealing a number of fingers and winning or losing depending on whether they are odd or even, or alternati

Drawing straws

Drawing straws is a selection method, or a form of sortition, that is used by a group to choose one member of the group to perform a task after none has volunteered for it. The same practice can be us

Statistical unit

In statistics, a unit is one member of a set of entities being studied. It is the main source for the mathematical abstraction of a "random variable". Common examples of a unit would be a single perso

Cohen's h

In statistics, Cohen's h, popularized by Jacob Cohen, is a measure of distance between two proportions or probabilities. Cohen's h has several related uses:
* It can be used to describe the differenc

Kleroterion

A kleroterion (Ancient Greek: κληρωτήριον) was a randomization device used by the Athenian polis during the period of democracy to select citizens to the boule, to most state offices, to the nomotheta

Statistical benchmarking

In statistics, benchmarking is a method of using auxiliary information to adjust the sampling weights used in an estimation process, in order to yield more accurate estimates of totals. Suppose we hav

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