The six-rays model is applied in an urban or indoor environment where a radio signal transmitted will encounter some objects that produce reflected, refracted or scattered copies of the transmitted si
Early ITU model
The ITU vegetation model is a radio propagation model that estimates the path loss encountered due to the presence of one or more trees inside a point to point telecommunication link. The predictions
Two-ray ground-reflection model
The two-rays ground-reflection model is a multipath radio propagation model which predicts the path losses between a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna when they are in line of sight (LOS).
One woodland terminal model
The ITU terrestrial model for one terminal in woodland is a radio propagation model belonging to the class of foliage models. This model is a successor of the early ITU model.
The Longley–Rice model (LR) is a radio propagation model: a method for predicting the attenuation of radio signals for a telecommunication link in the frequency range of 40 MHz to 100 GHz. Longley-Ric
Young model is a radio propagation model that was built on the data collected on New York City. It typically models the behaviour of cellular communication systems in large cities.
VOACAP (Voice of America Coverage Analysis Program) is a radio propagation model that uses empirical data to predict the point-to-point path loss and coverage of a given transceiver if given as inputs
Free-space path loss
In telecommunication, the free-space path loss (FSPL) is the attenuation of radio energy between the feedpoints of two antennas that results from the combination of the receiving antenna's capture are
Friis transmission equation
The Friis transmission formula is used in telecommunications engineering, equating the power at the terminals of a receive antenna as the product of power density of the incident wave and the effectiv
ITU model for indoor attenuation
The ITU indoor propagation model, also known as ITU model for indoor attenuation, is a radio propagation model that estimates the path loss inside a room or a closed area inside a building delimited b
The ten-rays model is a mathematical model applied to the transmissions of radio signal in an urban area, to generate a model of ten rays typically four rays more are added to the six rays model, thes
The Okumura model is a radio propagation model that was built using the data collected in the city of Tokyo, Japan. The model is ideal for using in cities with many urban structures but not many tall
Log-distance path loss model
The log-distance path loss model is a radio propagation model that predicts the path loss a signal encounters inside a building or densely populated areas over distance.
COST Hata model
The COST Hata model is a radio propagation model (i.e. path loss) that extends the urban Hata model (which in turn is based on the Okumura model) to cover a more elaborated range of frequencies (up to
Single vegetative obstruction model
The ITU Single Vegetative Obstruction Model is a Radio propagation model that quantitatively approximates the attenuation due to the vegetation in the middle of a telecommunication link.
Area-to-area Lee model
The Lee model for area-to-area mode is a radio propagation model that operates around 900 MHz. Built as two different modes, this model includes an adjustment factor that can be adjusted to make the m
Point-to-point Lee model
The Lee model for point-to-point mode is a radio propagation model that operates around 900 MHz. Built as two different modes, this model includes an adjustment factor that can be adjusted to make the
Dipole field strength in free space
Dipole field strength in free space, in telecommunications, is the electric field strength caused by a half wave dipole under ideal conditions. The actual field strength in terrestrial environments is
The Hata model is a radio propagation model for predicting the path loss of cellular transmissions in exterior environments, valid for microwave frequencies from 150 to 1500 MHz. It is an empirical fo
ITU terrain model
The ITU terrain loss model is a radio propagation model that provides a method to predict the median path loss for a telecommunication link. Developed on the basis of diffraction theory, this model pr
The Egli model is a terrain model for radio frequency propagation. This model, which was first introduced by John Egli in his 1957 paper, was derived from real-world data on UHF and VHF television tra
Weissberger’s modified exponential decay model, or simply, Weissberger’s model, is a radio wave propagation model that estimates the path loss due to the presence of one or more trees in a point-to-po