Category: Quarks

Down quark
The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter. Together with the up quark, it forms the neutrons (one up
Quark model
In particle physics, the quark model is a classification scheme for hadrons in terms of their valence quarks—the quarks and antiquarks which give rise to the quantum numbers of the hadrons. The quark
Baryon number
In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system. It is defined as where nq is the number of quarks, and nq is the number of antiquarks. Baryons (thre
In particle physics, the hypercharge (a portmanteau of hyperonic and charge) Y of a particle is a quantum number conserved under the strong interaction. The concept of hypercharge provides a single ch
Current quark
Current quarks (also called naked quarks or bare quarks) are a description of valence quarks as the cores of the quark particles that are the invariable parts of a hadron, with their non-virtual ("rea
Constituent quark
A constituent quark is a current quark with a notional "covering" induced by the renormalization group. In the low-energy limit of QCD, a description by means of perturbation theory is not possible: H
Up quark
The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a significant constituent of matter. It, along with the down quark, forms the neutrons (one up qua
In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin (I) is a quantum number related to the up- and down quark content of the particle. More specifically, isospin symmetry is a subset of the flavour symme
Bottom quark
The bottom quark or b quark, also known as the beauty quark, is a third-generation heavy quark with a charge of −1/3 e. All quarks are described in a similar way by electroweak and quantum chromodynam
Generation (particle physics)
In particle physics, a generation or family is a division of the elementary particles. Between generations, particles differ by their flavour quantum number and mass, but their electric and strong int
A quark (/kwɔːrk, kwɑːrk/) is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and
Strange quark
The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle. Strange quarks are found in subatomic particles called hadrons. Examples of hadron
Quark–lepton complementarity
The quark–lepton complementarity (QLC) is a possible fundamental symmetry between quarks and leptons. First proposed in 1990 by Foot and Lew, it assumes that leptons as well as quarks come in three "c
Topness (T, also called truth), a flavour quantum number, represents the difference between the number of top quarks (t) and number of top antiquarks (t) that are present in a particle: By convention,
In physics, bottomness (symbol B′ using a prime as plain B is used already for baryon number) or beauty is a flavour quantum number reflecting the difference between the number of bottom antiquarks (n
In particle physics, a diquark, or diquark correlation/clustering, is a hypothetical state of two quarks grouped inside a baryon (that consists of three quarks) (Lichtenberg 1982). Corresponding model
Stop squark
In particle physics, a stop squark, symbol t͂, is the superpartner of the top quark as predicted by supersymmetry (SUSY). It is a sfermion, which means it is a spin-0 boson (scalar boson). While the t
Top quark
The top quark, sometimes also referred to as the truth quark, (symbol: t) is the most massive of all observed elementary particles. It derives its mass from its coupling to the Higgs Boson. This coupl
In particle physics, strangeness ("S") is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic interactions which occur in a short pe
Charm (quantum number)
Charm (symbol C) is a flavour quantum number representing the difference between the number of charm quarks (c) and charm antiquarks (c) that are present in a particle: By convention, the sign of flav
Charm quark
The charm quark, charmed quark or c quark (from its symbol, c) is the third most massive of all quarks, a type of elementary particle. Charm quarks are found in hadrons, which are subatomic particles