# Category: Quantifier (logic)

Witness (mathematics)
In mathematical logic, a witness is a specific value t to be substituted for variable x of an existential statement of the form ∃x φ(x) such that φ(t) is true.
Donkey sentence
Donkey sentences are sentences that contain a pronoun with clear meaning (it is bound semantically) but whose syntactical role in the sentence poses challenges to grammarians. Such sentences defy stra
Uniqueness quantification
In mathematics and logic, the term "uniqueness" refers to the property of being the one and only object satisfying a certain condition. This sort of quantification is known as uniqueness quantificatio
Scope (logic)
In logic, the scope of a quantifier or a quantification is the range in the formula where the quantifier "engages in". It is put right after the quantifier, often in parentheses. Some authors describe
Game semantics
Game semantics (German: dialogische Logik, translated as dialogical logic) is an approach to formal semantics that grounds the concepts of truth or validity on game-theoretic concepts, such as the exi
Conditional quantifier
In logic, a conditional quantifier is a kind of Lindström quantifier (or generalized quantifier) QA that, relative to a classical model A, satisfies some or all of the following conditions ("X" and "Y
Bounded quantifier
In the study of formal theories in mathematical logic, bounded quantifiers (a.k.a. restricted quantifiers) are often included in a formal language in addition to the standard quantifiers "∀" and "∃".
Quantifier variance
The term quantifier variance refers to claims that there is no uniquely best ontological language with which to describe the world. The term "quantifier variance" rests upon the philosophical term 'qu
Branching quantifier
In logic a branching quantifier, also called a Henkin quantifier, finite partially ordered quantifier or even nonlinear quantifier, is a partial ordering of quantifiers for Q ∈ {∀,∃}. It is a special
Plural quantification
In mathematics and logic, plural quantification is the theory that an individual variable x may take on plural, as well as singular, values. As well as substituting individual objects such as Alice, t
Existential quantification
In predicate logic, an existential quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "there exists", "there is at least one", or "for some". It is usually denoted by t
Filter quantifier
In mathematics, a filter on a set informally gives a notion of which subsets are "large". Filter quantifiers are a type of logical quantifier which, informally, say whether or not a statement is true
Quantifier (logic)
In logic, a quantifier is an operator that specifies how many individuals in the domain of discourse satisfy an open formula. For instance, the universal quantifier in the first order formula expresse
Counting quantification
A counting quantifier is a mathematical term for a quantifier of the form "there exists at least k elements that satisfy property X".In first-order logic with equality, counting quantifiers can be def
Quantifier rank
In mathematical logic, the quantifier rank of a formula is the depth of nesting of its quantifiers. It plays an essential role in model theory. Notice that the quantifier rank is a property of the for
Universal quantification
In mathematical logic, a universal quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "given any" or "for all". It expresses that a predicate can be satisfied by every
Generalized quantifier
In formal semantics, a generalized quantifier (GQ) is an expression that denotes a set of sets. This is the standard semantics assigned to quantified noun phrases. For example, the generalized quantif
Lindström quantifier
In mathematical logic, a Lindström quantifier is a generalized polyadic quantifier. Lindström quantifiers generalize first-order quantifiers, such as the existential quantifier, the universal quantifi
Quantificational variability effect
Quantificational variability effect (QVE) is the intuitive equivalence of certain sentences with quantificational adverbs (Q-adverbs) and sentences without these, but with quantificational determiner