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DigiDoc

DigiDoc (Digital Document) is a family of digital signature- and cryptographic computing file formats utilizing a public key infrastructure. It currently has three generations of sub formats, DDOC- ,

Commitment scheme

A commitment scheme is a cryptographic primitive that allows one to commit to a chosen value (or chosen statement) while keeping it hidden to others, with the ability to reveal the committed value lat

Public key fingerprint

In public-key cryptography, a public key fingerprint is a short sequence of bytes used to identify a longer public key. Fingerprints are created by applying a cryptographic hash function to a public k

HEAAN

HEAAN (Homomorphic Encryption for Arithmetic of Approximate Numbers) is an open source homomorphic encryption (HE) library which implements an approximate HE scheme proposed by Cheon, Kim, Kim and Son

Certificate server

No description available.

Threshold cryptosystem

A threshold cryptosystem, the basis for the field of threshold cryptography, is a cryptosystem that protects information by encrypting it and distributing it among a cluster of fault-tolerant computer

Validation authority

In public key infrastructure, a validation authority (VA) is an entity that provides a service used to verify the validity of a digital certificate per the mechanisms described in the X.509 standard a

Merkle signature scheme

In hash-based cryptography, the Merkle signature scheme is a digital signature scheme based on Merkle trees (also called hash trees) and one-time signatures such as the Lamport signature scheme. It wa

KCDSA

KCDSA (Korean Certificate-based Digital Signature Algorithm) is a digital signature algorithm created by a team led by the Korea Internet & Security Agency (KISA). It is an ElGamal variant, similar to

Card Verifiable Certificate

Card Verifiable Certificates (CVC) are digital certificates that are designed to be processed by devices with limited computing power such as smart cards. This is achieved by using simple type–length–

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm

In cryptography, the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) offers a variant of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) which uses elliptic-curve cryptography.

Key exchange

Key exchange (also key establishment) is a method in cryptography by which cryptographic keys are exchanged between two parties, allowing use of a cryptographic algorithm. If the sender and receiver w

Teleadministration

Teleadministration is based on the concept that documents in electronic format have legal value. Administrative informatics is not new, but for many years it was merely Information Technology applied

Jeevan Pramaan

Jeevan Pramaan is a Life Certificate program affiliated with Aadhaar for people with pensions. It was started by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 10 November 2014. The certificate was made for people w

BLISS signature scheme

BLISS (short for Bimodal Lattice Signature Scheme) is a digital signature scheme proposed by Léo Ducas, Alain Durmus, Tancrède Lepoint and Vadim Lyubashevsky in their 2013 paper "Lattice Signature and

Multisignature

Multisignature (also multi-signature or multisig) is a digital signature scheme which allows a group of users to sign a single document. Usually, a multisignature algorithm produces a joint signature

Subject Alternative Name

Subject Alternative Name (SAN) is an extension to X.509 that allows various values to be associated with a security certificate using a subjectAltName field. These values are called Subject Alternativ

XUDA

XUDA (Xcert Universal Database API) is a library that is used and integrated in many public key infrastructure (PKI) products of different vendors like the KEON CA of RSA LABS. XUDA is an Application

Offline root certificate authority

An offline root certificate authority is a certificate authority (as defined in the X.509 standard and RFC 5280) which has been isolated from network access, and is often kept in a powered-down state.

Wildcard certificate

In computer networking, a wildcard certificate is a public key certificate which can be used with multiple sub-domains of a domain. The principal use is for securing web sites with HTTPS, but there ar

Torus-based cryptography

Torus-based cryptography involves using algebraic tori to construct a group for use in ciphers based on the discrete logarithm problem. This idea was first introduced by Alice Silverberg and Karl Rubi

Ring signature

In cryptography, a ring signature is a type of digital signature that can be performed by any member of a set of users that each have keys. Therefore, a message signed with a ring signature is endorse

Non-commutative cryptography

Non-commutative cryptography is the area of cryptology where the cryptographic primitives, methods and systems are based on algebraic structures like semigroups, groups and rings which are non-commuta

Certificate-based encryption

Certificate-based encryption is a system in which a certificate authority uses ID-based cryptography to produce a certificate. This system gives the users both implicit and explicit certification, the

Forward secrecy

In cryptography, forward secrecy (FS), also known as perfect forward secrecy (PFS), is a feature of specific key agreement protocols that gives assurances that session keys will not be compromised eve

Anonymous veto network

In cryptography, the anonymous veto network (or AV-net) is a multi-party secure computation protocol to compute the boolean-OR function. It was first proposed by Feng Hao and Piotr Zieliński in 2006.

Certification Practice Statement

A Certification Practice Statement (CPS) is a document from a certificate authority or a member of a web of trust which describes their practice for issuing and managing public key certificates. Some

Pointcheval–Stern signature algorithm

In cryptography, the Pointcheval–Stern signature algorithm is a digital signature scheme based on the closely related ElGamal signature scheme. It changes the ElGamal scheme slightly to produce an alg

Blind signature

In cryptography a blind signature, as introduced by David Chaum, is a form of digital signature in which the content of a message is disguised (blinded) before it is signed. The resulting blind signat

X.509

In cryptography, X.509 is an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard defining the format of public key certificates. X.509 certificates are used in many Internet protocols, including TLS/

Hyperelliptic curve cryptography

Hyperelliptic curve cryptography is similar to elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) insofar as the Jacobian of a hyperelliptic curve is an abelian group in which to do arithmetic, just as we use the grou

Digital Signature Algorithm

The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a public-key cryptosystem and Federal Information Processing Standard for digital signatures, based on the mathematical concept of modular exponentiation and t

Diffie–Hellman key exchange

Diffie–Hellman key exchange is a mathematical method of securely exchanging cryptographic keys over a public channel and was one of the first public-key protocols as conceived by Ralph Merkle and name

Chain of trust

In computer security, a chain of trust is established by validating each component of hardware and software from the end entity up to the root certificate. It is intended to ensure that only trusted s

DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities

DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities (DANE) is an Internet security protocol to allow X.509 digital certificates, commonly used for Transport Layer Security (TLS), to be bound to domain names us

Non-repudiation

Non-repudiation refers to a situation where a statement's author cannot successfully dispute its authorship or the validity of an associated contract. The term is often seen in a legal setting when th

Public key certificate

In cryptography, a public key certificate, also known as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document used to prove the validity of a public key. The certificate includes i

Wireless Public Key Infrastructure

Wireless Public Key Infrastructure (WPKI) is a technology that provides public key infrastructure functionality using a mobile Secure Element such as a SIM card. It can be used for example for two-fac

U-Prove

U-Prove is a free and open-source technology and accompanying SDK for user-centric identity management. The underlying cryptographic protocols were designed by Dr. Stefan Brands and further developed

Proxy re-encryption

Proxy re-encryption (PRE) schemes are cryptosystems which allow third parties (proxies) to alter a ciphertext which has been encrypted for one party, so that it may be decrypted by another.

Group signature

A group signature scheme is a method for allowing a member of a group to anonymously sign a message on behalf of the group. The concept was first introduced by David Chaum and Eugene van Heyst in 1991

Identity-based conditional proxy re-encryption

Identity-based conditional proxy re-encryption (IBCPRE) is a type of proxy re-encryption (PRE) scheme in the identity-based public key cryptographic setting. An IBCPRE scheme is a natural extension of

PKCS

In cryptography, PKCS stands for "Public Key Cryptography Standards". These are a group of public-key cryptography standards devised and published by RSA Security LLC, starting in the early 1990s. The

Byzantine fault

A Byzantine fault (also Byzantine generals problem, interactive consistency, source congruency, error avalanche, Byzantine agreement problem, and Byzantine failure) is a condition of a computer system

Attribute-based encryption

Attribute-based encryption is a type of public-key encryption in which the secret key of a user and the ciphertext are dependent upon attributes (e.g. the country in which they live, or the kind of su

Domain Name System Security Extensions

The Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is a suite of extension specifications by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for securing data exchanged in the Domain Name System (DNS) in

Hash-based cryptography

Hash-based cryptography is the generic term for constructions of cryptographic primitives based on the security of hash functions. It is of interest as a type of post-quantum cryptography. So far, has

Homomorphic encryption

Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption that permits users to perform computations on its encrypted data without first decrypting it. These resulting computations are left in an encrypted form

Public-key cryptography

In a public-key encryption system, anyone with a public key can encrypt a message, yielding a ciphertext, but only those who know the corresponding private key can decrypt the ciphertext to obtain the

Resource Public Key Infrastructure

Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI), also known as Resource Certification, is a specialized public key infrastructure (PKI) framework to support improved security for the Internet's BGP routing

The Magic Words are Squeamish Ossifrage

"The Magic Words are Squeamish Ossifrage" was the solution to a challenge ciphertext posed by the inventors of the RSA cipher in 1977. The problem appeared in Martin Gardner's Mathematical Games colum

Identity-based encryption

ID-based encryption, or identity-based encryption (IBE), is an important primitive of ID-based cryptography. As such it is a type of public-key encryption in which the public key of a user is some uni

EdDSA

In public-key cryptography, Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) is a digital signature scheme using a variant of Schnorr signature based on twisted Edwards curves.It is designed to be fa

Public key infrastructure

A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, hardware, software and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key

Detached signature

A detached signature is a type of digital signature that is kept separate from its signed data, as opposed to bundled together into a single file.

Distributed key generation

Distributed key generation (DKG) is a cryptographic process in which multiple parties contribute to the calculation of a shared public and private key set. Unlike most public key encryption models, di

Certificateless cryptography

Certificateless cryptography is a variant of ID-based cryptography intended to prevent the key escrow problem. Ordinarily, keys are generated by a certificate authority or a key generation center (KGC

Client certificate

In cryptography, a client certificate is a type of digital certificate that is used by client systems to make authenticated requests to a remote server. Client certificates play a key role in many mut

Open vote network

In cryptography, the open vote network (or OV-net) is a secure multi-party computation protocol to compute the boolean-count function: namely, given a set of binary values 0/1 in the input, compute th

RSA problem

In cryptography, the RSA problem summarizes the task of performing an RSA private-key operation given only the public key. The RSA algorithm raises a message to an exponent, modulo a composite number

Trusted third party

In cryptography, a trusted third party (TTP) is an entity which facilitates interactions between two parties who both trust the third party; the Third Party reviews all critical transaction communicat

Transient-key cryptography

Transient-key cryptography is a form of public-key cryptography wherein keypairs are generated and assigned to brief intervals of time instead of to individuals or organizations, and the blocks of cry

Implicit certificate

In cryptography, implicit certificates are a variant of public key certificate. A subject's public key is reconstructed from the data in an implicit certificate, and is then said to be "implicitly" ve

Cohen's cryptosystem

Cohen's cryptosystem is a public-key cryptosystem proposed in 1998 by Bram Cohen.

Signcryption

In cryptography, signcryption is a public-key primitive that simultaneously performs the functions of both digital signature and encryption. Encryption and digital signature are two fundamental crypto

Identity-based cryptography

Identity-based cryptography is a type of public-key cryptography in which a publicly known string representing an individual or organization is used as a public key. The public string could include an

Authorization certificate

In computer security, an attribute certificate, or authorization certificate (AC) is a digital document containing attributes associated to the holder by the issuer. When the associated attributes are

Elliptic-curve cryptography

Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. ECC allows smaller keys compared to non-EC cryptogra

Java KeyStore

A Java KeyStore (JKS) is a repository of security certificates – either authorization certificates or public key certificates – plus corresponding private keys, used for instance in TLS encryption. In

Smart card management system

A Smart Card Management System (SCMS) or Credential Management System (CMS) is a system for managing smart cards through the life cycle of the smart cards. Thus, the system can issue the smart cards,

Certificate revocation list

In cryptography, a certificate revocation list (or CRL) is "a list of digital certificates that have been revoked by the issuing certificate authority (CA) before their scheduled expiration date and s

Certificate authority

In cryptography, a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that stores, signs, and issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key

Crypto-shredding

Crypto-shredding is the practice of 'deleting' data by deliberately deleting or overwriting the encryption keys. This requires that the data have been encrypted. Data may be considered to exist in thr

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