Category: Public-key cryptography

DigiDoc (Digital Document) is a family of digital signature- and cryptographic computing file formats utilizing a public key infrastructure. It currently has three generations of sub formats, DDOC- ,
Commitment scheme
A commitment scheme is a cryptographic primitive that allows one to commit to a chosen value (or chosen statement) while keeping it hidden to others, with the ability to reveal the committed value lat
Public key fingerprint
In public-key cryptography, a public key fingerprint is a short sequence of bytes used to identify a longer public key. Fingerprints are created by applying a cryptographic hash function to a public k
HEAAN (Homomorphic Encryption for Arithmetic of Approximate Numbers) is an open source homomorphic encryption (HE) library which implements an approximate HE scheme proposed by Cheon, Kim, Kim and Son
Certificate server
No description available.
Threshold cryptosystem
A threshold cryptosystem, the basis for the field of threshold cryptography, is a cryptosystem that protects information by encrypting it and distributing it among a cluster of fault-tolerant computer
Validation authority
In public key infrastructure, a validation authority (VA) is an entity that provides a service used to verify the validity of a digital certificate per the mechanisms described in the X.509 standard a
Merkle signature scheme
In hash-based cryptography, the Merkle signature scheme is a digital signature scheme based on Merkle trees (also called hash trees) and one-time signatures such as the Lamport signature scheme. It wa
KCDSA (Korean Certificate-based Digital Signature Algorithm) is a digital signature algorithm created by a team led by the Korea Internet & Security Agency (KISA). It is an ElGamal variant, similar to
Card Verifiable Certificate
Card Verifiable Certificates (CVC) are digital certificates that are designed to be processed by devices with limited computing power such as smart cards. This is achieved by using simple type–length–
Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
In cryptography, the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) offers a variant of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) which uses elliptic-curve cryptography.
Key exchange
Key exchange (also key establishment) is a method in cryptography by which cryptographic keys are exchanged between two parties, allowing use of a cryptographic algorithm. If the sender and receiver w
Teleadministration is based on the concept that documents in electronic format have legal value. Administrative informatics is not new, but for many years it was merely Information Technology applied
Jeevan Pramaan
Jeevan Pramaan is a Life Certificate program affiliated with Aadhaar for people with pensions. It was started by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 10 November 2014. The certificate was made for people w
BLISS signature scheme
BLISS (short for Bimodal Lattice Signature Scheme) is a digital signature scheme proposed by Léo Ducas, Alain Durmus, Tancrède Lepoint and Vadim Lyubashevsky in their 2013 paper "Lattice Signature and
Multisignature (also multi-signature or multisig) is a digital signature scheme which allows a group of users to sign a single document. Usually, a multisignature algorithm produces a joint signature
Subject Alternative Name
Subject Alternative Name (SAN) is an extension to X.509 that allows various values to be associated with a security certificate using a subjectAltName field. These values are called Subject Alternativ
XUDA (Xcert Universal Database API) is a library that is used and integrated in many public key infrastructure (PKI) products of different vendors like the KEON CA of RSA LABS. XUDA is an Application
Offline root certificate authority
An offline root certificate authority is a certificate authority (as defined in the X.509 standard and RFC 5280) which has been isolated from network access, and is often kept in a powered-down state.
Wildcard certificate
In computer networking, a wildcard certificate is a public key certificate which can be used with multiple sub-domains of a domain. The principal use is for securing web sites with HTTPS, but there ar
Torus-based cryptography
Torus-based cryptography involves using algebraic tori to construct a group for use in ciphers based on the discrete logarithm problem. This idea was first introduced by Alice Silverberg and Karl Rubi
Ring signature
In cryptography, a ring signature is a type of digital signature that can be performed by any member of a set of users that each have keys. Therefore, a message signed with a ring signature is endorse
Non-commutative cryptography
Non-commutative cryptography is the area of cryptology where the cryptographic primitives, methods and systems are based on algebraic structures like semigroups, groups and rings which are non-commuta
Certificate-based encryption
Certificate-based encryption is a system in which a certificate authority uses ID-based cryptography to produce a certificate. This system gives the users both implicit and explicit certification, the
Forward secrecy
In cryptography, forward secrecy (FS), also known as perfect forward secrecy (PFS), is a feature of specific key agreement protocols that gives assurances that session keys will not be compromised eve
Anonymous veto network
In cryptography, the anonymous veto network (or AV-net) is a multi-party secure computation protocol to compute the boolean-OR function. It was first proposed by Feng Hao and Piotr Zieliński in 2006.
Certification Practice Statement
A Certification Practice Statement (CPS) is a document from a certificate authority or a member of a web of trust which describes their practice for issuing and managing public key certificates. Some
Pointcheval–Stern signature algorithm
In cryptography, the Pointcheval–Stern signature algorithm is a digital signature scheme based on the closely related ElGamal signature scheme. It changes the ElGamal scheme slightly to produce an alg
Blind signature
In cryptography a blind signature, as introduced by David Chaum, is a form of digital signature in which the content of a message is disguised (blinded) before it is signed. The resulting blind signat
In cryptography, X.509 is an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standard defining the format of public key certificates. X.509 certificates are used in many Internet protocols, including TLS/
Hyperelliptic curve cryptography
Hyperelliptic curve cryptography is similar to elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) insofar as the Jacobian of a hyperelliptic curve is an abelian group in which to do arithmetic, just as we use the grou
Digital Signature Algorithm
The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a public-key cryptosystem and Federal Information Processing Standard for digital signatures, based on the mathematical concept of modular exponentiation and t
Diffie–Hellman key exchange
Diffie–Hellman key exchange is a mathematical method of securely exchanging cryptographic keys over a public channel and was one of the first public-key protocols as conceived by Ralph Merkle and name
Chain of trust
In computer security, a chain of trust is established by validating each component of hardware and software from the end entity up to the root certificate. It is intended to ensure that only trusted s
DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities
DNS-based Authentication of Named Entities (DANE) is an Internet security protocol to allow X.509 digital certificates, commonly used for Transport Layer Security (TLS), to be bound to domain names us
Non-repudiation refers to a situation where a statement's author cannot successfully dispute its authorship or the validity of an associated contract. The term is often seen in a legal setting when th
Public key certificate
In cryptography, a public key certificate, also known as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document used to prove the validity of a public key. The certificate includes i
Wireless Public Key Infrastructure
Wireless Public Key Infrastructure (WPKI) is a technology that provides public key infrastructure functionality using a mobile Secure Element such as a SIM card. It can be used for example for two-fac
U-Prove is a free and open-source technology and accompanying SDK for user-centric identity management. The underlying cryptographic protocols were designed by Dr. Stefan Brands and further developed
Proxy re-encryption
Proxy re-encryption (PRE) schemes are cryptosystems which allow third parties (proxies) to alter a ciphertext which has been encrypted for one party, so that it may be decrypted by another.
Group signature
A group signature scheme is a method for allowing a member of a group to anonymously sign a message on behalf of the group. The concept was first introduced by David Chaum and Eugene van Heyst in 1991
Identity-based conditional proxy re-encryption
Identity-based conditional proxy re-encryption (IBCPRE) is a type of proxy re-encryption (PRE) scheme in the identity-based public key cryptographic setting. An IBCPRE scheme is a natural extension of
In cryptography, PKCS stands for "Public Key Cryptography Standards". These are a group of public-key cryptography standards devised and published by RSA Security LLC, starting in the early 1990s. The
Byzantine fault
A Byzantine fault (also Byzantine generals problem, interactive consistency, source congruency, error avalanche, Byzantine agreement problem, and Byzantine failure) is a condition of a computer system
Attribute-based encryption
Attribute-based encryption is a type of public-key encryption in which the secret key of a user and the ciphertext are dependent upon attributes (e.g. the country in which they live, or the kind of su
Domain Name System Security Extensions
The Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) is a suite of extension specifications by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for securing data exchanged in the Domain Name System (DNS) in
Hash-based cryptography
Hash-based cryptography is the generic term for constructions of cryptographic primitives based on the security of hash functions. It is of interest as a type of post-quantum cryptography. So far, has
Homomorphic encryption
Homomorphic encryption is a form of encryption that permits users to perform computations on its encrypted data without first decrypting it. These resulting computations are left in an encrypted form
Public-key cryptography
In a public-key encryption system, anyone with a public key can encrypt a message, yielding a ciphertext, but only those who know the corresponding private key can decrypt the ciphertext to obtain the
Resource Public Key Infrastructure
Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI), also known as Resource Certification, is a specialized public key infrastructure (PKI) framework to support improved security for the Internet's BGP routing
The Magic Words are Squeamish Ossifrage
"The Magic Words are Squeamish Ossifrage" was the solution to a challenge ciphertext posed by the inventors of the RSA cipher in 1977. The problem appeared in Martin Gardner's Mathematical Games colum
Identity-based encryption
ID-based encryption, or identity-based encryption (IBE), is an important primitive of ID-based cryptography. As such it is a type of public-key encryption in which the public key of a user is some uni
In public-key cryptography, Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) is a digital signature scheme using a variant of Schnorr signature based on twisted Edwards curves.It is designed to be fa
Public key infrastructure
A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, hardware, software and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key
Detached signature
A detached signature is a type of digital signature that is kept separate from its signed data, as opposed to bundled together into a single file.
Distributed key generation
Distributed key generation (DKG) is a cryptographic process in which multiple parties contribute to the calculation of a shared public and private key set. Unlike most public key encryption models, di
Certificateless cryptography
Certificateless cryptography is a variant of ID-based cryptography intended to prevent the key escrow problem. Ordinarily, keys are generated by a certificate authority or a key generation center (KGC
Client certificate
In cryptography, a client certificate is a type of digital certificate that is used by client systems to make authenticated requests to a remote server. Client certificates play a key role in many mut
Open vote network
In cryptography, the open vote network (or OV-net) is a secure multi-party computation protocol to compute the boolean-count function: namely, given a set of binary values 0/1 in the input, compute th
RSA problem
In cryptography, the RSA problem summarizes the task of performing an RSA private-key operation given only the public key. The RSA algorithm raises a message to an exponent, modulo a composite number
Trusted third party
In cryptography, a trusted third party (TTP) is an entity which facilitates interactions between two parties who both trust the third party; the Third Party reviews all critical transaction communicat
Transient-key cryptography
Transient-key cryptography is a form of public-key cryptography wherein keypairs are generated and assigned to brief intervals of time instead of to individuals or organizations, and the blocks of cry
Implicit certificate
In cryptography, implicit certificates are a variant of public key certificate. A subject's public key is reconstructed from the data in an implicit certificate, and is then said to be "implicitly" ve
Cohen's cryptosystem
Cohen's cryptosystem is a public-key cryptosystem proposed in 1998 by Bram Cohen.
In cryptography, signcryption is a public-key primitive that simultaneously performs the functions of both digital signature and encryption. Encryption and digital signature are two fundamental crypto
Identity-based cryptography
Identity-based cryptography is a type of public-key cryptography in which a publicly known string representing an individual or organization is used as a public key. The public string could include an
Authorization certificate
In computer security, an attribute certificate, or authorization certificate (AC) is a digital document containing attributes associated to the holder by the issuer. When the associated attributes are
Elliptic-curve cryptography
Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. ECC allows smaller keys compared to non-EC cryptogra
Java KeyStore
A Java KeyStore (JKS) is a repository of security certificates – either authorization certificates or public key certificates – plus corresponding private keys, used for instance in TLS encryption. In
Smart card management system
A Smart Card Management System (SCMS) or Credential Management System (CMS) is a system for managing smart cards through the life cycle of the smart cards. Thus, the system can issue the smart cards,
Certificate revocation list
In cryptography, a certificate revocation list (or CRL) is "a list of digital certificates that have been revoked by the issuing certificate authority (CA) before their scheduled expiration date and s
Certificate authority
In cryptography, a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that stores, signs, and issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key
Crypto-shredding is the practice of 'deleting' data by deliberately deleting or overwriting the encryption keys. This requires that the data have been encrypted. Data may be considered to exist in thr