Category: Logic and statistics

Statistical inference
Statistical inference is the process of using data analysis to infer properties of an underlying distribution of probability. Inferential statistical analysis infers properties of a population, for ex
Spurious relationship
In statistics, a spurious relationship or spurious correlation is a mathematical relationship in which two or more events or variables are associated but not causally related, due to either coincidenc
Dichotomous thinking
In statistics, dichotomous thinking or binary thinking is the process of seeing a discontinuity in the possible values that a p-value can take during null hypothesis significance testing: it is either
Boolean analysis
Boolean analysis was introduced by Flament (1976). The goal of a Boolean analysis is to detect deterministic dependencies between the items of a questionnaire or similar data-structures in observed re
Statistical proof
Statistical proof is the rational demonstration of degree of certainty for a proposition, hypothesis or theory that is used to convince others subsequent to a statistical test of the supporting eviden
Inference
Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences; etymologically, the word infer means to "carry forward". Inference is theoretically traditionally divided into deductio
Statistical syllogism
A statistical syllogism (or proportional syllogism or direct inference) is a non-deductive syllogism. It argues, using inductive reasoning, from a generalization true for the most part to a particular
Reference class problem
In statistics, the reference class problem is the problem of deciding what class to use when calculating the probability applicable to a particular case. For example, to estimate the probability of an
Maximum a posteriori estimation
In Bayesian statistics, a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate is an estimate of an unknown quantity, that equals the mode of the posterior distribution. The MAP can be used to obtain a poi
Boolean-valued
Boolean-valued usually refers to: * in most applied fields: something taking one of two values (example: True or False, On or Off, 1 or 0) referring to two-element Boolean algebra (the Boolean domain
Bayesian inference
Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available. Bayesian inference
Null result
In science, a null result is a result without the expected content: that is, the proposed result is absent. It is an experimental outcome which does not show an otherwise expected effect. This does no
Statistical hypothesis testing
A statistical hypothesis test is a method of statistical inference used to decide whether the data at hand sufficiently support a particular hypothesis.Hypothesis testing allows us to make probabilist