# Category: Latent variable models

Mokken scale
The Mokken scale is a psychometric method of data reduction. A Mokken scale is a unidimensional scale that consists of hierarchically-ordered items that measure the same underlying, latent concept. Th
Common-method variance
In applied statistics, (e.g., applied to the social sciences and psychometrics), common-method variance (CMV) is the spurious "variance that is attributable to the measurement method rather than to th
Item response theory
In psychometrics, item response theory (IRT) (also known as latent trait theory, strong true score theory, or modern mental test theory) is a paradigm for the design, analysis, and scoring of tests, q
Dynamic unobserved effects model
A dynamic unobserved effects model is a statistical model used in econometrics for panel analysis. It is characterized by the influence of previous values of the dependent variable on its present valu
Latent and observable variables
In statistics, latent variables (from Latin: present participle of lateo, “lie hidden”) are variables that can only be inferred indirectly through a mathematical model from other observable variables
Latent Dirichlet allocation
In natural language processing, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a generative statistical model that explains a set of observations through unobserved groups, and each group explains why some part
Latent class model
In statistics, a latent class model (LCM) relates a set of observed (usually discrete) multivariate variables to a set of latent variables. It is a type of latent variable model. It is called a latent
Factor analysis
Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors. For example, it
Local independence
Within statistics, Local independence is the underlying assumption of latent variable models.The observed items are conditionally independent of each other given an individual score on the latent vari
Thurstonian model
A Thurstonian model is a stochastic transitivity model with latent variables for describing the mapping of some continuous scale onto discrete, possibly ordered categories of response. In the model, e
Doubly stochastic model
In statistics, a doubly stochastic model is a type of model that can arise in many contexts, but in particular in modelling time-series and stochastic processes. The basic idea for a doubly stochastic
Nuisance variable
In the theory of stochastic processes in probability theory and statistics, a nuisance variable is a random variable that is fundamental to the probabilistic model, but that is of no particular intere
Pachinko allocation
In machine learning and natural language processing, the pachinko allocation model (PAM) is a topic model. Topic models are a suite of algorithms to uncover the hidden thematic structure of a collecti
Mixture model
In statistics, a mixture model is a probabilistic model for representing the presence of subpopulations within an overall population, without requiring that an observed data set should identify the su
Partial least squares regression
Partial least squares regression (PLS regression) is a statistical method that bears some relation to principal components regression; instead of finding hyperplanes of maximum variance between the re
Factor regression model
Within statistical factor analysis, the factor regression model, or hybrid factor model, is a special multivariate model with the following form: where, is the -th (known) observation. is the -th samp
Dynamic topic model
Within statistics, Dynamic topic models' are generative models that can be used to analyze the evolution of (unobserved) topics of a collection of documents over time. This family of models was propos
Latent semantic analysis
Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a technique in natural language processing, in particular distributional semantics, of analyzing relationships between a set of documents and the terms they contain b
Probabilistic latent semantic analysis
Probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA), also known as probabilistic latent semantic indexing (PLSI, especially in information retrieval circles) is a statistical technique for the analysis of t
Topic model
In statistics and natural language processing, a topic model is a type of statistical model for discovering the abstract "topics" that occur in a collection of documents. Topic modeling is a frequentl
Theory of conjoint measurement
The theory of conjoint measurement (also known as conjoint measurement or additive conjoint measurement) is a general, formal theory of continuous quantity. It was independently discovered by the Fren
Structural equation modeling
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a label for a diverse set of methods used by scientists in both experimental and observational research across the sciences, business, and other fields. It is use
Latent variable model
A latent variable model is a statistical model that relates a set of observable variables (also called manifest variables or indicators) to a set of latent variables. It is assumed that the responses
Polychoric correlation
In statistics, polychoric correlation is a technique for estimating the correlation between two hypothesised normally distributed continuous latent variables, from two observed ordinal variables. Tetr
First-difference estimator
In statistics and econometrics, the first-difference (FD) estimator is an estimator used to address the problem of omitted variables with panel data. It is consistent under the assumptions of the fixe
Measurement invariance
Measurement invariance or measurement equivalence is a statistical property of measurement that indicates that the same construct is being measured across some specified groups. For example, measureme