Category: Ions

In physics, a bipolaron is a type of quasiparticle consisting of two polarons. In organic chemistry, it is a molecule or a part of a macromolecular chain containing two positive charges in a conjugate
Ionic compound
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding. The compound is neutral overall, but consists of positively charged
Ionic liquids in carbon capture
The use of ionic liquids in carbon capture is a potential application of ionic liquids as absorbents for use in carbon capture and sequestration. Ionic liquids, which are salts that exist as liquids n
Townsend discharge
The Townsend discharge or Townsend avalanche is a gas ionisation process where free electrons are accelerated by an electric field, collide with gas molecules, and consequently free additional electro
Ionic potential
Ionic potential is the ratio of the electrical charge (z) to the radius (r) of an ion. As such, this ratio is a measure of the charge density at the surface of the ion; usually the denser the charge,
Doubly ionized oxygen
In astronomy and atomic physics, doubly ionized oxygen is the ion O2+ (O III in spectroscopic notation). Its emission forbidden lines in the visible spectrum fall primarily at the wavelength 500.7 nm,
Monohydrogen phosphate
Monohydrogen phosphate is the inorganic ion with the formula [HPO4]2-. Its formula can also be written as [PO3(OH)]2-, which shows the presence of a O-H bond. Together with dihydrogen phosphate, monoh
Liquid junction interface
In mass spectrometry, liquid junction interface is an ion source or set-up that couples peripheric devices, such as capillary electrophoresis, to mass spectrometry. See the IUPAC recommendation defini
Okorokov effect
The Okorokov effect (Russian: эффект Окорокова) or resonant coherent excitation, occurs when heavy ions move in crystals under channeling conditions. V. Okorokov predicted this effect in 1965 and it w
Monatomic ion
A monatomic ion (also called simple ion) is an ion consisting of exactly one atom. If an ion contains more than one atom, even if these are of the same element, it is called a polyatomic ion. For exam
Distonic ion
Distonic ions are chemical species that contain two ionic charges on the same molecule, separated by two or more carbon or heteroatoms. A feature of distonic radical ions is that their charges and rad
Born–Mayer equation
The Born–Mayer equation is an equation that is used to calculate the lattice energy of a crystalline ionic compound. It is a refinement of the Born–Landé equation by using an improved repulsion term.
Ionization energy
In physics and chemistry, ionization energy (IE) (American English spelling), ionisation energy (British English spelling) is the minimum energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of a
A polaron is a quasiparticle used in condensed matter physics to understand the interactions between electrons and atoms in a solid material. The polaron concept was proposed by Lev Landau in 1933 and
Coulomb crystal
A Coulomb crystal (also Ion Coulomb crystal) is a collection of trapped ions confined in a crystal-like structure at low temperature. The structures represent an equilibrium between the repulsive Coul
An ion (/ˈaɪ.ɒn, -ən/) is an atom or molecule with a net electrical charge. The charge of an electron is considered to be negative by convention and this charge is equal and opposite to the charge of
Ion funnel
in mass spectrometry, an ion funnel is a device used to focus a beam of ions using a series of stacked ring electrodes with decreasing inner diameter. A combined radio frequency and fixed electrical p
Ion trap
An ion trap is a combination of electric or magnetic fields used to capture charged particles — known as ions — often in a system isolated from an external environment. Ion traps have a number of scie
Isoelectric point
The isoelectric point (pI, pH(I), IEP), is the pH at which a molecule carries no net electrical charge or is electrically neutral in the statistical mean. The standard nomenclature to represent the is
Secondary electrons
Secondary electrons are electrons generated as ionization products. They are called 'secondary' because they are generated by other radiation (the primary radiation). This radiation can be in the form
In chemistry, an ionophore (from Greek ion and -phore 'ion carrier') is a chemical species that reversibly binds ions. Many ionophores are lipid-soluble entities that transport ions across the cell me
Inorganic ions
Inorganic ions in animals and plants are ions necessary for vital cellular activity. In body tissues, ions are also known as electrolytes, essential for the electrical activity needed to support muscl
Electrodeionization (EDI) is a water treatment technology that utilizes electricity, ion exchange membranes, and resin to deionize water and separate dissolved ions (impurities) from it. It differs fr
Electron affinity
The electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released when an electron attaches to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form an anion. X(g) + e−
Degree of ionization
The degree of ionization (also known as ionization yield in the literature) refers to the proportion of neutral particles, such as those in a gas or aqueous solution, that are ionized. For electrolyte
Structures for lossless ion manipulations
Structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) are a form of ion optics to which various radio frequency and dc electric potentials can be applied and used to enable a broad range of ion manipulatio
Ion source
An ion source is a device that creates atomic and molecular ions. Ion sources are used to form ions for mass spectrometers, optical emission spectrometers, particle accelerators, ion implanters and io
Tunnel ionization
Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom (or a molecule) pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom (or molecule). In an intense electric field, the potential barr
Ionic bonding
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, or between two atoms with sharply different electronegativities, and is the prim
Ionic liquid
An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state. In some contexts, the term has been restricted to salts whose melting point is below a specific temperature, such as 100 °C (212 °F). While ordinary
Ion gun
An Ion Gun typically refers to an instrument that generates a beam of with a well defined energy distribution. The ion beam is produced from a plasma that has been confined within a volume. Ions of a
Calcium signaling in Arabidopsis
Calcium signaling in Arabidopsis is a calcium mediated signalling pathway that Arabidopsis plants use in order to respond to a stimuli. In this pathway, Ca2+ works as a long range communication ion, a
Liquid junction potential
Liquid junction potential (shortly LJP) occurs when two solutions of electrolytes of different concentrations are in contact with each other. The more concentrated solution will have a tendency to dif
In organic chemistry, methenium (also called methylium, carbenium, methyl cation, or protonated methylene) is a cation with the formula CH+3. It can be viewed as a methylene radical (:CH2) with an add
Nonclassical ion
Nonclassical carbocations are stabilized by charge delocalization from contributions of neighbouring C−C or C−H bonds, which can form bridged intermediates or transition states. Nonclassical ions have
Born–Landé equation
The Born–Landé equation is a means of calculating the lattice energy of a crystalline ionic compound. In 1918 Max Born and Alfred Landé proposed that the lattice energy could be derived from the elect
Ionic transfer
Ionic transfer is the transfer of ions from one liquid phase to another. This is related to the phase transfer catalysts which are a special type of liquid-liquid extraction which is used in synthetic
Ionization, or Ionisation is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons, often in conjunction with other chemical changes. The res
Ion beam
An ion beam is a type of charged particle beam consisting of ions. Ion beams have many uses in electronics manufacturing (principally ion implantation) and other industries. A variety of ion beam sour
Polyatomic ion
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a covalent bonded set of two or more atoms, or of a metal complex, that can be considered to behave as a single unit and that has a net charge that