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Letter frequency

Letter frequency is the number of times letters of the alphabet appear on average in written language. Letter frequency analysis dates back to the Arab mathematician Al-Kindi (c. 801–873 AD), who form

Frequency (statistics)

In statistics, the frequency (or absolute frequency) of an event is the number of times the observation occurred/recorded in an experiment or study. These frequencies are often depicted graphically or

Histogram

A histogram is an approximate representation of the distribution of numerical data. The term was first introduced by Karl Pearson. To construct a histogram, the first step is to "bin" (or "bucket") th

Price-Jones curve

A Price-Jones curve is a graph showing the distribution of diameters of red blood cells. Higher diameter may be seen in pernicious anaemia, while lower diameter may be seen after haemorrhage.

Contingency table

In statistics, a contingency table (also known as a cross tabulation or crosstab) is a type of table in a matrix format that displays the (multivariate) frequency distribution of the variables. They a

Cumulative frequency analysis

Cumulative frequency analysis is the analysis of the frequency of occurrence of values of a phenomenon less than a reference value. The phenomenon may be time- or space-dependent. Cumulative frequency

Large number of rare events

In statistics, large number of rare events (LNRE) modeling summarizes methods that allow improvements in frequency distribution estimation over the maximum likelihood estimation when "rare events are

Frequency analysis

In cryptanalysis, frequency analysis (also known as counting letters) is the study of the frequency of letters or groups of letters in a ciphertext. The method is used as an aid to breaking classical

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