Category: Filter theory

Electrical resonance
Electrical resonance occurs in an electric circuit at a particular resonant frequency when the impedances or admittances of circuit elements cancel each other. In some circuits, this happens when the
Cutoff frequency
In physics and electrical engineering, a cutoff frequency, corner frequency, or break frequency is a boundary in a system's frequency response at which energy flowing through the system begins to be r
Commensurate line circuit
Commensurate line circuits are electrical circuits composed of transmission lines that are all the same length; commonly one-eighth of a wavelength. Lumped element circuits can be directly converted t
Composite image filter
A composite image filter is an electronic filter consisting of multiple image filter sections of two or more different types. The image method of filter design determines the properties of filter sect
Matched Z-transform method
The matched Z-transform method, also called the pole–zero mapping or pole–zero matching method, and abbreviated MPZ or MZT, is a technique for converting a continuous-time filter design to a discrete-
Comb filter
In signal processing, a comb filter is a filter implemented by adding a delayed version of a signal to itself, causing constructive and destructive interference. The frequency response of a comb filte
Multidelay block frequency domain adaptive filter
The multidelay block frequency domain adaptive filter (MDF) algorithm is a block-based frequency domain implementation of the (normalised) Least mean squares filter (LMS) algorithm.
YIG sphere
Yttrium iron garnet spheres (YIG spheres) serve as magnetically tunable filters and resonators for microwave frequencies. YIG filters are used for their high Q factors, typically between 100 and 200.
Alpha beta filter
An alpha beta filter (also called alpha-beta filter, f-g filter or g-h filter) is a simplified form of observer for estimation, data smoothing and control applications. It is closely related to Kalman
Filter (signal processing)
In signal processing, a filter is a device or process that removes some unwanted components or features from a signal. Filtering is a class of signal processing, the defining feature of filters being
A stopband is a band of frequencies, between specified limits, through which a circuit, such as a filter or telephone circuit, does not allow signals to pass, or the attenuation is above the required
Network synthesis filters
Network synthesis filters are signal processing filters designed by the network synthesis method. The method has produced several important classes of filter including the Butterworth filter, the Cheb
Boucherot cell
A Boucherot cell (or Zobel network) is an electronic filter, used in audio amplifiers to damp high-frequency oscillations that might occur in the absence of loads at high frequencies. Named after Paul
Multirate filter bank and multidimensional directional filter banks
This article provides a short survey of the concepts, principles and applications of Multirate Filter Banks and Multidimensional Directional Filter Banks.
Zero-forcing equalizer
The zero-forcing equalizer is a form of linear equalization algorithm used in communication systems which applies the inverse of the frequency response of the channel. This form of equalizer was first
Recursive least squares filter
Recursive least squares (RLS) is an adaptive filter algorithm that recursively finds the coefficients that minimize a weighted linear least squares cost function relating to the input signals. This ap
Finite impulse response
In signal processing, a finite impulse response (FIR) filter is a filter whose impulse response (or response to any finite length input) is of finite duration, because it settles to zero in finite tim
Linear filter
Linear filters process time-varying input signals to produce output signals, subject to the constraint of linearity. In most cases these linear filters are also time invariant (or shift invariant) in
Filter design
Filter design is the process of designing a signal processing filter that satisfies a set of requirements, some of which may be conflicting. The purpose is to find a realization of the filter that mee
Linkwitz–Riley filter
A Linkwitz–Riley (L-R) filter is an infinite impulse response filter used in Linkwitz–Riley audio crossovers, named after its inventors Siegfried Linkwitz and . This filter type was originally describ
Infinite impulse response
Infinite impulse response (IIR) is a property applying to many linear time-invariant systems that are distinguished by having an impulse response which does not become exactly zero past a certain poin
Quarter-wave impedance transformer
A quarter-wave impedance transformer, often written as λ/4 impedance transformer, is a transmission line or waveguide used in electrical engineering of length one-quarter wavelength (λ), terminated wi
Sample matrix inversion
Sample matrix inversion (or direct matrix inversion) is an algorithm that estimates weights of an array (adaptive filter) by replacing the correlation matrix with its estimate. Using -dimensional samp
Iterative impedance
Iterative impedance is the input impedance of an infinite chain of identical networks. It is related to the image impedance used in filter design, but has a simpler, more straightforward definition.
FIR transfer function
Transfer function filter utilizes the transfer function and the Convolution theorem to produce a filter. In this article, an example of such a filter using finite impulse response is discussed and an
Analogue filter
Analogue filters are a basic building block of signal processing much used in electronics. Amongst their many applications are the separation of an audio signal before application to bass, mid-range,
Dual impedance
Dual impedance and dual network are terms used in electronic network analysis. The dual of an impedance is its reciprocal, or algebraic inverse . For this reason the dual impedance is also called the
Quadrature mirror filter
In digital signal processing, a quadrature mirror filter is a filter whose magnitude response is the mirror image around of that of another filter. Together these filters, first introduced by Croisier
Washout filter
In signal processing, a washout filter is a stable high pass filter with zero static gain. This leads to the filtering of lower frequency inputs signals, leaving the steady state output unaffected by
Coupling coefficient of resonators
The coupling coefficient of resonators is a dimensionless value that characterizes interaction of two resonators. Coupling coefficients are used in resonator filter theory. Resonators may be both elec
Propagation constant
The propagation constant of a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave is a measure of the change undergone by the amplitude and phase of the wave as it propagates in a given direction. The quantity being meas
Kolmogorov–Zurbenko filter
Within statistics, the Kolmogorov–Zurbenko (KZ) filter was first proposed by A. N. Kolmogorov and formally defined by Zurbenko. It is a series of iterations of a moving average filter of length m, whe
Least mean squares filter
Least mean squares (LMS) algorithms are a class of adaptive filter used to mimic a desired filter by finding the filter coefficients that relate to producing the least mean square of the error signal
Bartlett's bisection theorem
Bartlett's bisection theorem is an electrical theorem in network analysis attributed to Albert Charles Bartlett. The theorem shows that any symmetrical two-port network can be transformed into a latti
Image filter end terminations
Filters designed using the image impedance methodology suffer from a peculiar flaw in the theory. The predicted characteristics of the filter are calculated assuming that the filter is terminated with
Impedance matching
In electronics, impedance matching is the practice of designing or adjusting the input impedance or output impedance of an electrical device for a desired value. Often, the desired value is selected t
Savitzky–Golay filter
A Savitzky–Golay filter is a digital filter that can be applied to a set of digital data points for the purpose of smoothing the data, that is, to increase the precision of the data without distorting
Sinc filter
In signal processing, a sinc filter is an idealized filter that removes all frequency components above a given cutoff frequency, without affecting lower frequencies, and has linear phase response. The
Ringing (signal)
In electronics, signal processing, and video, ringing is oscillation of a signal, particularly in the step response (the response to a sudden change in input). Often ringing is undesirable, but not al
Ripple (electrical)
Ripple (specifically ripple voltage) in electronics is the residual periodic variation of the DC voltage within a power supply which has been derived from an alternating current (AC) source. This ripp
Causal filter
In signal processing, a causal filter is a linear and time-invariant causal system. The word causal indicates that the filter output depends only on past and present inputs. A filter whose output also
Antimetric electrical network
An antimetric electrical network is an electrical network that exhibits anti-symmetrical electrical properties. The term is often encountered in filter theory, but it applies to general electrical net
Similarities between Wiener and LMS
The Least mean squares filter solution converges to the Wiener filter solution, assuming that the unknown system is LTI and the noise is stationary. Both filters can be used to identify the impulse re
Impulse invariance
Impulse invariance is a technique for designing discrete-time infinite-impulse-response (IIR) filters from continuous-time filters in which the impulse response of the continuous-time system is sample
Nonlinear filter
In signal processing, a nonlinear (or non-linear) filter is a filter whose output is not a linear function of its input. That is, if the filter outputs signals R and S for two input signals r and s se
Digital biquad filter
In signal processing, a digital biquad filter is a second order recursive linear filter, containing two poles and two zeros. "Biquad" is an abbreviation of "biquadratic", which refers to the fact that
Image impedance
Image impedance is a concept used in electronic network design and analysis and most especially in filter design. The term image impedance applies to the impedance seen looking into a port of a networ
Prototype filter
Prototype filters are electronic filter designs that are used as a template to produce a modified filter design for a particular application. They are an example of a nondimensionalised design from wh
Parks–McClellan filter design algorithm
The Parks–McClellan algorithm, published by James McClellan and Thomas Parks in 1972, is an iterative algorithm for finding the optimal Chebyshev finite impulse response (FIR) filter. The Parks–McClel
Equivalent impedance transforms
An equivalent impedance is an equivalent circuit of an electrical network of impedance elements which presents the same impedance between all pairs of terminals as did the given network. This article