Category: Ergodic theory

Artin billiard
In mathematics and physics, the Artin billiard is a type of a dynamical billiard first studied by Emil Artin in 1924. It describes the geodesic motion of a free particle on the non-compact Riemann sur
Conservative system
In mathematics, a conservative system is a dynamical system which stands in contrast to a dissipative system. Roughly speaking, such systems have no friction or other mechanism to dissipate the dynami
Piecewise syndetic set
In mathematics, piecewise syndeticity is a notion of largeness of subsets of the natural numbers. A set is called piecewise syndetic if there exists a finite subset G of such that for every finite sub
Linear flow on the torus
In mathematics, especially in the area of mathematical analysis known as dynamical systems theory, a linear flow on the torus is a flow on the n-dimensional torus which is represented by the following
Ergodic sequence
In mathematics, an ergodic sequence is a certain type of integer sequence, having certain equidistribution properties.
Oseledets theorem
In mathematics, the multiplicative ergodic theorem, or Oseledets theorem provides the theoretical background for computation of Lyapunov exponents of a nonlinear dynamical system. It was proved by (al
Unit tangent bundle
In Riemannian geometry, the unit tangent bundle of a Riemannian manifold (M, g), denoted by T1M, UT(M) or simply UTM, is the unit sphere bundle for the tangent bundle T(M). It is a fiber bundle over M
No-wandering-domain theorem
In mathematics, the no-wandering-domain theorem is a result on dynamical systems, proven by Dennis Sullivan in 1985. The theorem states that a rational map f : Ĉ → Ĉ with deg(f) ≥ 2 does not have a wa
Commutation theorem for traces
In mathematics, a commutation theorem for traces explicitly identifies the commutant of a specific von Neumann algebra acting on a Hilbert space in the presence of a trace. The first such result was p
Equidistribution theorem
In mathematics, the equidistribution theorem is the statement that the sequence a, 2a, 3a, ... mod 1 is uniformly distributed on the circle , when a is an irrational number. It is a special case of th
Lattice (discrete subgroup)
In Lie theory and related areas of mathematics, a lattice in a locally compact group is a discrete subgroup with the property that the quotient space has finite invariant measure. In the special case
Stationary ergodic process
In probability theory, a stationary ergodic process is a stochastic process which exhibits both stationarity and ergodicity. In essence this implies that the random process will not change its statist
Wiener–Wintner theorem
In mathematics, the Wiener–Wintner theorem, named after Norbert Wiener and Aurel Wintner, is a strengthening of the ergodic theorem, proved by Wiener and Wintner.
Maximal ergodic theorem
The maximal ergodic theorem is a theorem in ergodic theory, a discipline within mathematics. Suppose that is a probability space, that is a (possibly noninvertible) measure-preserving transformation,
Rokhlin lemma
In mathematics, the Rokhlin lemma, or Kakutani–Rokhlin lemma is an important result in ergodic theory. It states that an aperiodic measure preserving dynamical system can be decomposed to an arbitrary
Topological entropy
In mathematics, the topological entropy of a topological dynamical system is a nonnegative extended real number that is a measure of the complexity of the system. Topological entropy was first introdu
Ergodic process
In physics, statistics, econometrics and signal processing, a stochastic process is said to be in an ergodic regime if an observable's ensemble average equals the time average. In this regime, any col
Quantum ergodicity
In quantum chaos, a branch of mathematical physics, quantum ergodicity is a property of the quantization of classical mechanical systems that are chaotic in the sense of exponential sensitivity to ini
Krylov–Bogolyubov theorem
In mathematics, the Krylov–Bogolyubov theorem (also known as the existence of invariant measures theorem) may refer to either of the two related fundamental theorems within the theory of dynamical sys
Kolmogorov automorphism
In mathematics, a Kolmogorov automorphism, K-automorphism, K-shift or K-system is an invertible, measure-preserving automorphism defined on a standard probability space that obeys Kolmogorov's zero–on
In mathematics, ergodicity expresses the idea that a point of a moving system, either a dynamical system or a stochastic process, will eventually visit all parts of the space that the system moves in,
Maximising measure
In mathematics — specifically, in ergodic theory — a maximising measure is a particular kind of probability measure. Informally, a probability measure μ is a maximising measure for some function f if
Absorbing barrier (finance)
No description available.
Mixing (physics)
In physics, a dynamical system is said to be mixing if the phase space of the system becomes strongly intertwined, according to at least one of several mathematical definitions. For example, a measure
Syndetic set
In mathematics, a syndetic set is a subset of the natural numbers, having the property of "bounded gaps": that the sizes of the gaps in the sequence of natural numbers is bounded.
Hopf decomposition
In mathematics, the Hopf decomposition, named after Eberhard Hopf, gives a canonical decomposition of a measure space (X, μ) with respect to an invertible non-singular transformation T:X→X, i.e. a tra
Thick set
In mathematics, a thick set is a set of integers that contains arbitrarily long intervals. That is, given a thick set , for every , there is some such that .
Axiom A
In mathematics, Smale's axiom A defines a class of dynamical systems which have been extensively studied and whose dynamics is relatively well understood. A prominent example is the Smale horseshoe ma
IP set
In mathematics, an IP set is a set of natural numbers which contains all finite sums of some infinite set. The finite sums of a set D of natural numbers are all those numbers that can be obtained by a
Ergodic theory
Ergodic theory (Greek: ἔργον ergon "work", ὁδός hodos "way") is a branch of mathematics that studies statistical properties of deterministic dynamical systems; it is the study of ergodicity. In this c
Kingman's subadditive ergodic theorem
In mathematics, Kingman's subadditive ergodic theorem is one of several ergodic theorems. It can be seen as a generalization of Birkhoff's ergodic theorem.Intuitively, the subadditive ergodic theorem
Ratner's theorems
In mathematics, Ratner's theorems are a group of major theorems in ergodic theory concerning unipotent flows on homogeneous spaces proved by Marina Ratner around 1990. The theorems grew out of Ratner'
Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou problem
In physics, the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou problem or formerly the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam problem was the apparent paradox in chaos theory that many complicated enough physical systems exhibited almost exactl
Ellis–Numakura lemma
In mathematics, the Ellis–Numakura lemma states that if S is a non-empty semigroup with a topology such that S is compact and the product is semi-continuous, then S has an idempotent element p, (that
Wandering set
In dynamical systems and ergodic theory, the concept of a wandering set formalizes a certain idea of movement and mixing. When a dynamical system has a wandering set of non-zero measure, then the syst
Arithmetic combinatorics
In mathematics, arithmetic combinatorics is a field in the intersection of number theory, combinatorics, ergodic theory and harmonic analysis.
Ergodic Ramsey theory
Ergodic Ramsey theory is a branch of mathematics where problems motivated by additive combinatorics are proven using ergodic theory.
Mixing (mathematics)
In mathematics, mixing is an abstract concept originating from physics: the attempt to describe the irreversible thermodynamic process of mixing in the everyday world: mixing paint, mixing drinks, ind
Subshift of finite type
In mathematics, subshifts of finite type are used to model dynamical systems, and in particular are the objects of study in symbolic dynamics and ergodic theory. They also describe the set of all poss
Equidistributed sequence
In mathematics, a sequence (s1, s2, s3, ...) of real numbers is said to be equidistributed, or uniformly distributed, if the proportion of terms falling in a subinterval is proportional to the length
Kac's lemma
In ergodic theory, Kac's lemma, demonstrated by mathematician Mark Kac in 1947, is a lemma stating that in a measure space the orbit of almost all the points contained in a set of such space, whose me
Volume entropy
The volume entropy is an asymptotic invariant of a compact Riemannian manifold that measures the exponential growth rate of the volume of metric balls in its universal cover. This concept is closely r
Ergodic flow
In mathematics, ergodic flows occur in geometry, through the geodesic and horocycle flows of closed hyperbolic surfaces. Both of these examples have been understood in terms of the theory of unitary r
Markov odometer
In mathematics, a Markov odometer is a certain type of topological dynamical system. It plays a fundamental role in ergodic theory and especially in orbit theory of dynamical systems, since a theorem
Fundamental domain
Given a topological space and a group acting on it, the images of a single point under the group action form an orbit of the action. A fundamental domain or fundamental region is a subset of the space
Rice's formula
In probability theory, Rice's formula counts the average number of times an ergodic stationary process X(t) per unit time crosses a fixed level u. Adler and Taylor describe the result as "one of the m
Sinai–Ruelle–Bowen measure
In the mathematical discipline of ergodic theory, a Sinai–Ruelle–Bowen (SRB) measure is an invariant measure that behaves similarly to, but is not an ergodic measure. In order to be ergodic, the time
Hadamard's dynamical system
In physics and mathematics, the Hadamard dynamical system (also called Hadamard's billiard or the Hadamard–Gutzwiller model) is a chaotic dynamical system, a type of dynamical billiards. Introduced by
Poincaré recurrence theorem
In mathematics and physics, the Poincaré recurrence theorem states that certain dynamical systems will, after a sufficiently long but finite time, return to a state arbitrarily close to (for continuou
Ergodic hypothesis
In physics and thermodynamics, the ergodic hypothesis says that, over long periods of time, the time spent by a system in some region of the phase space of microstates with the same energy is proporti
Bernoulli scheme
In mathematics, the Bernoulli scheme or Bernoulli shift is a generalization of the Bernoulli process to more than two possible outcomes. Bernoulli schemes appear naturally in symbolic dynamics, and ar
Ornstein isomorphism theorem
In mathematics, the Ornstein isomorphism theorem is a deep result in ergodic theory. It states that if two Bernoulli schemes have the same Kolmogorov entropy, then they are isomorphic. The result, giv